Supporting Services (S1)

1. Axler, R. (2004, March 3). Lake Ecology Primer. Water on the Web. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from http://waterontheweb.org/u

This website seems to contain a healthy summary of each aspect of supporting services of a lake. It also includes a full page on primary producers, which haven’t been mentioned in previous sources.

2. Bayley, P. (1999). Understanding Large River-Floodplain Ecosystems. BioScience, 45, 153-158.

Based on their connection to the surrounding land, water bodies play a great role in the maintenance and protection of floodplains. This article discusses the various implications of separating the connectivity of water bodies and floodplains by restricting overland-flow of lakes and rivers. By understanding these implications, information regarding the supporting services of water bodies can be synthesized and put into the context of the Lake Champlain Basin.

3. Golterman, H., Clymo, K., & Clymo, R. (1975). Physiological Limnology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.

This very thorough limnology resource provides valuable about the formation and structure of lakes while discussing the effect of various abiotic factors on like productivity and chemical composition. The book contains many chapters that cover everything from chemical cycles to seasonal changes of lakes. Of particular importance will be the chapters regarding photosynthesis and productivity, the recycling of nutrients and sedimentation.

4. Johnson, C. W. (1998). To Move The World. The Nature of Vermont: Introduction and Guide to a New England Environment (Green Mountain Power Books) (2 ed., pp. 3-25). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

This chapter details the geological time-line of the creation of Vermont. It describes the forces the shaped and created the Lake Champlain basin as well as the surrounding areas. It also provides information pertaining to the chemical and mineral composition of the different regions of Vermont’s bedrock.

5. Johnson, C. W. (1998). Ponds and Lakes. The Nature of Vermont: Introduction and Guide to a New England Environment (Green Mountain Power Books) (2 ed., pp. 200-225). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

This chapter discusses the many factors that can influence the development of the lake ecosystem. It also provides information on the basic functions and properties of different lake zones. It also presents how the lake Champlain ecosystem is connected to other ecosystems and populations.

6. Johnson, C. W. (1998). Physiographic Regions of Vermont. The Nature of  Vermont: Introduction and Guide to a New England Environment (Green Mountain Power Books) (2 ed., pp. 25-35).  Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.

This source continues with the geo-morphological processes and cycles that created the Lake Champlain Basin. For example, it discusses the cycle of rock formation that has been taking place in the basin for hundreds of thousands of years. It discusses the materials and characteristics of different rock types. This chapter also describes the physiologic and climactic characteristics of the lake Champlain Basin. It discusses how Lake Champlain gives the “Champlain Lowland” region an entirely different climate than the rest of Vermont.

7. Paul, D. N., & McGinley, M. (2007, November 1). Physical environment of lakes – Encyclopedia of Earth. Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from http://www.eoearth.org/article/Physical_environment_of_lakes

This website has both an introduction and a detailed layout on lake morphology, structure and the seasonal distribution of heat. Each section is included in a table of contents at the top, is easy to navigate, and has tons of interesting information. It even includes Lake Champlain in some examples of how river inflow currents affect the lake.

8. Ripl, W. (1995). Management of Water Cycle and Energy Flow for Ecosystem Control: the Energy- Transport-Reaction (ETR) Model. Ecosystem Modelling, 78, 61-76.

This resource refers to the sedimentation that occurs during glacial activity responsible for the formation of many lakes. Of course, this sedimentation had great implications for the surrounding area including the formation of topsoil and its productivity. Since Lake Champlain was formed out of retreating glaciers, this will be an important resource for explaining an important supporting service of the lake.

9. Rouse, W., Blanken, P., Bussires, N., Oswald, C., Schertzer, W., & Spence, C. (2008). An Investigation of the Thermal and Energy Balance Regimes of Great Slave and Great Bear Lakes. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 9, 1318-1333.

This article found on Academic Search Premier goes through an extensive description of how heat and energy affect lakes. Although samples were taken from Great Bear and Great Salve lakes, they are similar in geological formation to Lake Champlain. It explains the thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, and surface temperatures of lake structure.

10. Vanni, M. J., Bowling, A. M., Dickman, E. M., Hale, R. S., & Higgins, K. A. (206).  “Nutrient Cycling by Fish Supports Relatively More Primary Production as Lake Productivity Increases. Ecology, 87, 1696-1709.

This article covers most aspects of nutrient cycling, both on land and in lakes, which could go hand in hand in our project. In the study they quantified the nutrient cycling role of an abundant detritivorous fish species in reservoir ecosystems along a gradient of ecosystem productivity. It also has information on watershed nutrient cycling and should be helpful in this aspect of our presentation.

11. Vereschi, E. (1982). Understanding Large River-Floodplain Ecosystems. Oecologia, 55, 81-101.

Primary productivity of lake ecosystems is regulated by a number of factors ranging from food web structure to abiotic factors. This article is an in depth analysis of relationship between the primary productivity and the abiotic factors of Lake Nakuru in Kenya. Though it may exist in a different climate than Lake Champlain, understanding the effect of the abiotic factors on this Kenyan lake will allow us to illustrate that a basin’s physical formation and climate does indeed play a large role in the supporting services provided by water bodies.

12. Vorosmarty, C., & Sahagian, D. (2000). Anthropogenic Disturbance of the Terrestrial Water Cycle. BioScience, 50, 753-756.

This article discusses the central role terrestrial water bodies play in regulating the water cycle of the Earth and the implications for disrupting this relationship. Though it may not discuss the hydrologic cycle in detail, it is a good resource for understanding the effects of anthropogenic disturbances.  By knowing this information, it will be possible to link the article to the Lake Champlain Basin and explain important services provided by the lake’s formation and relation to the surround environment. It may also be interesting to state how the Lake Champlain Basin may be altered due to human interaction.

13. Winslow, M. (2008). The Setting. Lake Champlain: A Natural History (pp. 3-19). Bennington: Images from the Past.

This chapter details the chemical, physical and biological character of the Lake Champlain Basin. It explains how the origins of the lake; how it came to be where it is and how it has acquired its own unique characteristics. Lake Champlain is truly a product of its setting and the landscape through which its waters flowed. It also provides separate sections to discuss each of the five lake segments individually. This helps the reader understand how the lake works together as a whole.

14. Winslow, M. (2008). Forces. Lake Champlain: A Natural History (First ed., pp. 59-76). Bennington: Images from the Past.

This chapter discusses several of the supporting services we are focusing on. It discusses nutrient cycling, retention time as well as heat-energy regulation and storage within Lake Champlain. This source is so helpful because it explains these forces in an easy to understand manner.

15. Winslow, M. (2008). The Future of Lake Champlain. Lake Champlain: A Natural History (First ed., pp. 121-137). Bennington: Images from the Past.

This chapter is very helpful because it discusses how the lake responds to changes such as nutrient pollution and invasive species. While this material does is not directly related to our work, I think this resource will help our group communicate better with the other groups that are working more closely with these matters. This chapter describes how urban, suburban and agricultural land-use has influenced, and been influenced by, Lake Champlain. It also discusses how climate change has already affected the Lake Champlain basin and how it may continue to do so into the future.

Regulating Services (R1)

1. Andrew K. Hotchkiss *,, Cynthia V. Rider *,, Chad R. Blystone *,, Vickie S. Wilson, Phillip C. Hartig, Gerald T. Ankley, Paul M. Foster, Clark L. Gray and L. Earl Gray ,1, et al. (2008). Fifteen Years after “Wingspread” – Environmental Endocrine Disrupters and Human and Wildlife Health: Where We Are Today and Where We Need to Go. Published by Oxford University Press. Toxicological Sciences 2008 105(2):235-259; doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfn030 [http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/105/2/235]

This source covered so much material, which was extremely helpful. It focused on three main issues that I really needed to know more about for this project. It addressed what have we learned about the effects of EDCs on fish, wildlife, and human health, discuss representative animal studies on estrogens, and evaluate regulatory proposals being considered. The last category was the most important since the other sources explained why estrogen was bad and how it got into the water, but not what we should do or what we are doing about the problem. It was definitely a lengthy source, but it wasn’t too dense or wordy.

2. Boutilier, L., Lake, C., Hart, W., Jamieson, R., & Gordon, R. (2009). Adsorption, sedimentation, and inactivation of E. coli within wastewater treatment wetlands [electronic resource]. Water research, 43(17), 4370-4380. Retrieved from Agricola database.

This looks into the ways in which constructed wetlands can play a role in cleaning up the surrounding toxins within local streams and waterways. Inactive, absorption, and sedimentation are means for extracting contaminants such as E Coli, which are often found in wetlands that are used for water treatment. It is important to understand how contaminants like E Coli function, and how our regulating systems can be used to target them, as well as other contaminants.

3. Bolan, N., Laurenson, S., Luo, J., & Sukias, J. (2009). Integrated treatment of farm effluents in New Zealand’s dairy operations. Bioresource Technology, 100(22), 5490-5497. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.03.004.

Although this article looks at how farms in New Zealand can minimize waste runoff into streams and lakes, it incorporates ideas that Vermont farms can hopefully put to use in order to lessen the impact of pollutants on the lake. It incorporates methods to reuse more of the manure, where the wastes go back onto the farmlands, instead of into the water. There are several methods they look at such as advanced pond systems, where waste is pushed through a variety of steps to break down.

4. Colborn, Dumanoski, Peterson (1997). Our Stolen Future. Plume Publishing a division of the Penguin Group: New York.

This source was very helpful in illustrating exactly how many of the pollutants our group is looking at, (Estrogen, PCBs), have gotten into the waterways and accumulated in human tissue from eating fish. It has been a very detailed and thought provoking resource when solely looking at these chemicals affects on human health, which is a huge part of our research on health provisions. The book as a whole focuses on a lot more information and detailed studies than we need to be looking at in our research, but it was very helpful as a foundation of chemicals affecting human health and where they originate from.

5. Donald Mackay, Susan Sang, Penny Vlahos, Miriam Diamond, Frank Gobas, David Dolan. (1994). A rate constant model of chemical dynamics in a lake ecosystem: PCBs in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 20 (4), 625-642.

This article seems very relevant towards finding a solution to PCBs and other like-contaminants’ toxic concentrations throughout a lake ecosystem.  At the least, the research provides methods to estimating the lake’s time-response to loading reductions of a given contaminant.  The model the researchers created was applied in an illustrative manner to PCBs, thus there was no empirical evidence pertaining to PCBs of its preciseness.  The research also discusses the effects of various remedial measures on both short-term and long-term concentrations throughout a lake ecosystem.

6. Gobas, F., & Z’Graggen, M. (1995). Time response of the Lake Ontario ecosystem to virtual elimination of PCBs. Environmental Science & Technology , 29 (8), 2038. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

This article should be utilized as a major reference in our research with PCBs.  It is right in line with our topic of the lake as a living machine and how it processes and absorbs certain wastes and toxics.  The article gives a whole ecosystem assessment on the bio-accumulation of PCBs and how the levels of the contaminant are affected throughout its existence. As well as how species respond to changes in PCB loadings at different rates.

7. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis. (2005). In Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.358.aspx.pdf

Although extremely broad and extensive, this MEA synthesis on Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Wetlands and Water, seems to provide some valuable information for us on the link between wetland services and human health. The report aims to promote a wise use of wetlands in order to maintain an “ecological character” that is essential to delivering ecosystem services. In terms of our project, and analyses of a lake’s waste absorption capacity, this report will provide evidence of the linkages between water purification and waste treatment and human well-being. The report’s analysis of the current and future state of wetland ecosystems will also give us an idea of what future conditions to expect for Lake Champlain. A lot of the report focuses on management, which might also give us an idea of how to minimize waste inputs into the lake, although it doesn’t really help us answer the question of what natural ecological processes absorb waste in a lake. This report is also limited because it doesn’t focus on the specific wastes we are assessing in Lake Champlain.

8. ILEC. 2007. Integrated Lake Basin Management: An Introduction. International Lake Environment Committee Foundation: Kusatsu, Japan.

This document covers many facets of lake ecosystem science and approaches to management. PCBs and integrating nature are touched upon in the document, but so is governance, solution strategies and financial implications.  Depending on the scope of our research and project, this document could become very useful.

9. Kidd, K., Blanchfield, P., Mills, K., Palace, V., Evans, R., Lazorchak, J., et al. (2007). Collapse of a fish population after exposure to a synthetic estrogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(21), 8897-8901. doi:10.1073/pnas.0609568104.

This source was great in illustrating the chain reaction of estrogen affecting the fish and their populations, along with the ecosystems food web and then finally how that affects humans. It is important to recognize that what the fish are experiencing could be our fate in the future, as well. It gave a lot of studies and explanations for what was going on both from a human health and environmental health perspective, which was useful.

10. Lake Champlain Basin Program. (n.d.). Lake Champlain Basin Program: Phosphorus Pollution. Retrieved April 8, 2010, from http://www.lcbp.org/PHOSPSUM.htm

This article brings the idea of phosphorous pollution back to our lake of study – Lake Champlain. It covers the main sources of pollution in the basin as well as what steps have been taken and will be taken to reduce to the phosphorous levels in the water. This is very useful information as it deals directly with Lake Champlain.

11. McIntosh, A., & Lester, D. (1994). Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from Lake Champlain sediments by Mysis relicta. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry , 13 (11), 1825. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

This article is a study conducted at Lake Champlain investigating the freshwater shrimp (Mysis Relicta) involvement in transferring PCBs to lake trout.  This research is important because it reveals a primary causal factor of how and where the PCB bioaccumulation begins within Lake Champlain.  Mitigation and remediation approaches would certainly reference this literature to gain insight into the process, and our research team will certainly find use from this document.

12. Mercury in the Environment. (2000, October).  U.S. Geological Survey [Fact sheet 146-00]. Retrieved from http://www.usgs.gov/themes/factsheet/146-00/

This source seems to provide an excellent overview of the mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems. It addresses an array of pertinent questions including why mercury is a toxicological problems, its effects on human health, where mercury contamination comes from and how it cycles in the environment, potential for ecosystem recovery, etc. This source is limited in that it doesn’t go into that much further detail, or necessarily relate to a lake’s waste absorption capacity. Although only a brief overview, it will still be useful for a basic understanding of the element and a good starting point for further research.

13. Ning, G., Armatas, N., Shanley, J., Kamman, N., Miller, E., Keeler, G., et al. (2006). Mass Balance Assessment for Mercury in Lake Champlain. Environmental Science & Technology, 40(1), 82-89. doi:10.1021/es050513b.

This article looks like a great resource for an extensive understanding of the role of mercury in Lake Champlain. The advantage of such an article is its specific focus on mercury in the lake that we are studying (Lake Champlain). The article focuses on a mass balance model developed to understand the source, concentration and effects of mercury contamination in a lake ecosystem. The results of the model will be useful to us in understanding what mechanisms of the lake allow it to absorb mercury. This source is limited though, because it only focuses on mercury, and may address the linkage between waste absorption capacity of mercury and human health.

14. Pardos, M., Benninghoff, C., de Alencastro, L., & Wildi, W. (2004). The impact of a sewage treatment plant’s effluent on sediment quality in a small bay in Lake Geneva (Switzerland–France). Part 1: Spatial distribution of contaminants and the potential for biological impacts. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, 9(1), 41-52. Retrieved from E-Journals database.

This was an interesting article because it listed various metals, contaminants, and other materials that were found in the sediment in this particular lake. While it doesn’t give play a direct role in what would be found in Lake Champlain, it asks similar questions about the potential problem of sedimentation and the various sediments that are found in lake because of the proximity to a sewage treatment plant.

15. Phillips, P., and A. Chalmers. “Wastewater Effluent, Combined Sewer Overflows, and Other Sources of Organic Compounds to Lake Champlain.” Journal of      the American Water Resources Association 45.1 (2009): 45-57. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 Mar. 2010.

The leakage of organic waste compounds (such as sewage) in the Lake and its surrounding waterways has posed another issue to water contamination and waste absorption. This article shows that organic wastewater compounds (OCW’s) were found in several testing locations around Lake Champlain. Of the 62 compounds tested for, detergent degradates, organophosphate esters, and sterols were three commonly found contaminants, while the sites with the most contaminants were wastewater treatments areas and locations of sewer effluence, as well as storm runoff. These three locations provide a point of reference for where we might work at boosting the absorption capacities of the ecological systems, possible eliminating toxins before they ever reach the main body of water.

16. Rogen, C. J., & Horgan, B. P. (2010). Preventing Pollution Problems from Lawn and Garden Fertilizers. Retrieved April 8, 2010, from http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/horticulture/DG2923.html

This article is incredibly informative about the damages that phosphorus use in lawn care can cause throughout the watershed. It also provides details on how to prevent pollution from phosphorous use, by providing guidelines for fertilizer application and landscape maintenance.

17. State of the Lake and Ecosystem Indicators Report. Lake Champlain Basin Program. Queen City Printers Inc. 2008. [www.lcbp.org/lcstate.htm]

This source is literally our foundational knowledge for our entire project. It was the first resource we ever used when we just starting to figure out exactly what a health provisions regulating service was and what we should focus on. The book is very good at laying out all the basics and giving a thorough and easily accessible report of Lake Champlain, which of course is what our research will ultimately be applied to. This source also led us to other sources via online, which was helpful in building our research portfolio. I almost wish the report had even more information, as it was so helpful.

18. UNEP. (n.d.). Guidelines for the Integrated Management of the Watershed – Phytotechnology and Ecohydrology -. United Nations Environmental Programme Freshwater Management Series No. 5, 5. Retrieved April 8, 2010, from http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/Publications/Freshwater/FMS5/1/B.asp

This article looks at the concept of ecohydrological principles as a conceptual tool for sustainable water resources management. It discusses different ways of evaluating a lake’s basin on the basis of the level of stress it can bounce back from. This could very useful for our group in terms of being able to evaluate the resilience of Lake Champlain.

19. Wang, Q. , Kim, D., , Dionysiou, D.D., , Sorial, G.A. , Timberlake, D (2004). Sources and remediation for mercury contamination in aquatic systems – A literature review. Environmental Pollution131(2), 323-336. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2004.01.010.

This extensive article on sources and remediation for mercury in aquatic ecosystems seems to be a valuable source for understanding the role of mercury in Lake Champlain and the possibilities for remediation and waste absorption. Hopefully, using this source might answer some questions about the most important sources of mercury pollution in aquatic systems. In order to address waste absorption of mercury in Lake Champlain, it will also be useful to understand the remedial approaches to mercury contamination, including natural attenuation. Also useful is this article’s review and comparison of existing transport and transformation models of mercury. This article is limited though, in that it does not directly address our lake, and does not seem to focus on waste absorption capacity. It is assuring that the article has a whole host of references and comes from a trustworthy journal.

20. Wood, G. B. (n.d.). Phosphorus Effects on the System. Retrieved April 8, 2010, from http://chestofbooks.com/health/materia-medica-drugs/Treatise-Therapeutics-Pharmacology-Materia-Medica-Vol1/Phosphorus-Effects-on-the-System.html

This article reviews the health effects of phosphorus. This will be important to our research, as we want to address the effects of phosphorus levels in the Lake Champlain, especially in recreation areas such as beaches.

Regulating Services (R2)

1. Berry, Tom. Conserving Lake Champlain’s Biological Diversity. Nature Conservancy. Retrieved from http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/states/vermont/files/lake_champlain_biodiversity_report.pdf.

This report provides a great summary of all the biodiversity issues facing the lake. It covers the most problematic species, strategies for removing them and causes of habitat loss (biodiversity threats). The report also categorizes what effect each biodiversity threat (both invasive species and human actions) has on each separate ecosystem of the lake. The report will be very useful for us because it is very detailed in its description of the various invasive species, as well as describing why it is important to conserve the native biodiversity.

2. Bouffard, W.R., Marsden, J.E., & Young, B.A. (2006). Evaluation of Seasonal Blocking and Trapping of Adult Sea Lamprey as a Component of Integrated Control Program. Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research, (49) Retrieved from http://www.iaglr.org/conference/.

The article discusses findings on a method of trapping sea lamprey larvae and its effects on controlling the populations.  It found that in small streams it has been highly successful, which is an indicator for what methods can successfully control the sea lamprey population in Lake Champlain.

3. Candace, Page (2009). Spiny water flea threatens lake’s food web. The Burlington Free Press.  Retrieved from The Burlington Free Press. Retrieved from http://www.waterkeeper.ca/2009/08/06/spiny-water-flea-threatens-lakes-food-web/.

The spiny water flea is a small invasive crustacean that has plagued the Great Lakes and is now threatening to make its home in Lake Champlain. These animals outcompete other phytoplankton in the ecosystem and serve as a poor food source for plankton eaters. They also severely hinder fishing net use.  The New York State Canal Corp, Lake Champlain Basin Program, and Vermont Fish and Wildlife have come together to plan an attempt to stifle the water fleas’ invasion and their joint effort is an important interagency-cooperation model.

4. Carpenter, Steve (2005). The Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Retrieved from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/SGA.Wisconsin.aspx.

This site gives an example of how Wisconsin created and ecosystem assessment.  They provide key features of the assessment region in the Northern Highlands Lake District.  This will provide us with a good foundation with how we should relate this back to Lake Champlain.

5. Fishman, D.B., Adlerstein, S.A., & Vanderploeg, H.A. (2009). Causes of phytoplankton changes in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, during the zebra mussel invasion, Journal of Great Lakes Research, 35(4),482-495. Retrieved from http://www.snre.umich.edu/scavia/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/jglr_fishman_et_al_-_model.pdf.

In this 2009 report of an experiment done in the mid-1990’s, where a zebra mussel invasion and first been a positive, water and algae-clearing experience for Lake Huron, only for the lake to be hit three years later with blooms of cynobacteria, which hadn’t been a problem in the lake since the 1970’s. Multiple phytoplankton models were created in order to mediate the effects of the zebra mussels.

6. Gavin, C.C. & Goddard, C.I. (2003). Sea Lamprey International Symposium (SLIS II): Advances in the Integrated Management of Sea Lamprey in the Great Lakes, Journal of Great Lakes Research, 29(1), 1-14. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B984D-4WR7F88 1&_user=1563816&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2003&_alid=1288816357&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_cdi=59068&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=582&_acct=C000053744&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1563816&md5=2af0870af3a56aa8604962d43c238bab.

This article contains, at the date of publication, all that is known about management and control of the sea lamprey in the Great Lakes. These include, chemical control methods, effectiveness of methods, stream production, population regulation, and the damages that sea lamprey cause. There are likely many things in this article that Lake Champlain can utilize to better regulate the sea lamprey.

7. Hershener, C. & Havens, K.J. (2008). Managing Invasive Aquatic Plants in a Changing System: Strategic Consideration of Ecosystem Services. Conservation Biology, 22(3), 7. Retrieved from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/119879526/PDFSTART.

This article explains how the ecosystem services from lakes may change due to climate change.  Because of the loss in ecological services, there are many programs installed to try and aggressively control invading plants such as Phragmites australis and Hydrilla verticillata.  It gives case studies of numerous areas in North America on how they are combating some of the invasive species.

8. Howe, E.E., Marsden, J.E., & Bouffard, M. (2006). Movement of the Sea Lamprey in the Lake Champlain Basin. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 32(4) 776-87. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B984D-4VS613S-B&_user=1563816&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2006&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1288819321&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000053744&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1563816&md5=7d990425a5fd579b6a66494fe59d41ed.

This article examines the origins of the sea lamprey.  More specifically, it explains how they are spawned in tributaries around the Lake Champlain Basin, and assigning priorities to different areas.  This can help with control because if the species can be controlled before they metamorphose, the negative impacts of the species can be quelled.

9. The Lake Champlain Basin Program. Aquatic and Invasive Species in Lake Champlain & the Basin. Retrieved from http://www.lcbp.org/nuissum.htm.

This program works with neighboring states and provinces of the lake to help fund efforts which benefit all aspects of the lake. The program gathers data from research done on different parts of the lake including water quality, fisheries, wetlands, and more. There is a large variety of data and information on the different invasive species that currently inhabit the lake as well as potential future threats.

10. The Lake Champlain Basin Program. (2005). Lake champlain basin aquatic nuisance species management program. Retrieved from http://www.lcbp.org/PDFs/ANS_Mgmt_Plan_2005Final.pdf.

This report provides a great source for information about the current invasive species eradication work being done by the Lake Champlain Basin Program and both the Vermont and New York State Departments of Environmental Conservation.  It provides a detailed description about why it is important to get rid of invasives, both economically and environmentally. It describes the invasive species that will have the greatest negative  effect on economies, which connects well to our problem as well as methods to remove them.

11. Lake Champlain Committee (2010). Invasive Species. Retrieved from http://www.lakechamplaincommittee.org/lcc-at-work/invasive-species-in-lake/.

The Lake Champlain Committee explains the invasive species in Lake Champlain as well as new species that should be monitored because they are on the verge of becoming invasive.  They also explain their past and current projects on how they are managing these invasive species.  This resource will be useful especially when looking at the future of Lake Champlain.

12. Marsden, J., & Hauser, M. (2009). Exotic Species in Lake Champlain. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 35(2), 250-265. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B984D-4W4S3CK-3/2/d2f22bdfea07ecd8b143df160662b3f4.

Lake Champlain has less exotic and invasive species than the Great Lakes because it is less accessible for those locations. However, alien species do make it to the Champlain Basin a variety of ways and their habitat and behavior are important to understand. This paper provides an in-depth overview and inventory of most, if not all, of the exotic species in the Lake and discusses what the threats are and how invasions can be mitigated.

13. Miller, E.B. & Watzin, M.C. (2007). The Effects of Zebra Mussels on the Lower Planktonic Foodweb in Lake Champlain. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 33(2), 407-420. Retrieved from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121510225/PDFSTART.

In an article completed by researchers at the Rubenstein School, the relationship between zebra mussels and the dominance of toxic cynobacteria is examined, as well as the impact that zebra mussels have and could have on the plankton level of the food web of Lake Champlain. Results strongly point towards the management of zebra mussels as opposed to their dominance.

14. Modely, Margaret D. (2008). Aquatic invasive species rapid response planning partnerships in the Lake Champlain basin: Bridging international, political, social, and economic gaps. Water SA, 34(4), 476-480. Retrieved from http://www.wrc.org.za/Knowledge%20Hub%20Documents/Water%20SA%20Journals/Manuscripts/2008/05/WaterSA_2008_05_Paper%209.pdf.

In this article, The Lake Champlain Basin Program Aquatic Nuisance Species Subcommittee explains their rapid response action plan in combating invasive species in the lake.is developing an invasive species rapid response action plan that addresses invasive species control and spread prevention in the Basin. This report explains the problem and proposes a five step plan in order to restore the lake’s food chains and aquatic habitat to healthy levels.

15. Smyth, R.L., Watzin, M.C., & Manning, R.E. (2009). Investigating public preferences for managing Lake Champlain using a choice experiment. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), 615-623. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WJ7-4RSRR4G-3/2/c2e0cc014f9ad4460526bbe308eee2a2.

This document contains a trans-disciplinary, comprehensive management plan prepared for the lake, including 11 goals that span many issues and areas. The plan for management involved distributing questionnaires to residents and getting their input on how their basin should be managed, determining in what the residents decided was most important to them.

16. Vadeboncoeur, Y., Zanden, M.J., & Lodge, D.M. (2002). Putting the Lake Back Together: Reintegrating Benthic Pathways into Lake Food Web Models. Bioscience, 52(1) (2002): 44-54. Retrieved from http://limnology.wisc.edu/personnel/jakevz/pdf/2002_Bioscience_VDBetal.pdf.

This article talks about lake researchers and how they do not primarily focus on benthic species.  Benthos are those which live in on or near a seabed, these are things such as clams, oysters, or in an ocean sea stars.  The article discusses their importance in the overall food web of smaller lakes, much like lake Champlain.

17. Vermont Fish and Wildlife. (2004). Vermont Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved from  http://www.vtfishandwildlife.com/.

This website displays laws and regulations that are currently issued for the lake as well as aquatic conservation programs, state biologist reports, and information on the inhabitant species of the lake.  It is specific for Vermont and will be useful in helping to find out what current information about the Lake Champlain Basin.

18. Vermont Water Quality Division. (2010). Water Quality Division. Retrieved from  http://www.anr.state.vt.us/dec/waterq/wqdhome.htm.

The Water Quality Division performs a host of operations such as monitoring and regulation of chemical, structural, and biological functions that take place in the Lake. They also issue permits, produce assessments, and plan actions to remediate ecosystem health and water quality. The WQD is an important resource because they offer many references to projects and studies done on their behalf.

19. Watzin, M.C., Joppe-Mercure, K., & Rowder, J. (2008). Significant fish predation on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in Lake Champlain, U.S.A. Journal of Fish Biology, 73(7), 1585-1599. Retrieved from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/121510225/PDFSTART.

This paper records studies done on multiple fish species that prey on invasive zebra mussels in Lake Champlain. Some of these species include: freshwater drum, yellow perch, pumkinseed sunfish, and rock bass, of which freshwater drum and pumpkinseed were ferocious predators of the mussels. This study is significant because the findings suggest that these fish may offer some leverage in stabalizing zebra mussel populations.

20. Young, B. A., Bouffard, W.R., & Chipman, B.D. (2000). Strategic Plan for Lake Champlain Fisheries. Fisheries Technical Committee of the Lake Champlain Fish and Wildlife Management Cooperative, Retrieved from http://www.vtfishandwildlife.com/library/Reports_and_Documents/Fisheries/Strategic_Plan_for_Lake_Champlain_Fisheries.pdf.

This program is focused on creating a plan that helps coordinated fisheries programs throughout the entire Lake Champlain Basin.  Sections of this plan that are of relevance include principles for ecosystem management, sustainability, management of non-native and nuisance species, and protection of habitats.  This site will be useful in uncovering how this plan may improve the ecosystem services of the lake.

Regulating Services (R3)

1. “Best Management Practice State Financial Assistance Awards.”   Department of Agriculture, Food and Markets.   January, 2001. http://www.vermontagriculture.com/ARMES/BMP2001Report.htm

A Cost Share program is analyzed to see how farmers are able to pay for BMP’s.   A significant state grant was given for addressing the issue of creating an affordable system for addressing pollution on farms.

2. Eric E. Huber. “TMDLs: White Knight of Bureaucratic Nightmare?” Vermont Journal of Environmental Law.   Volume 4.   2002-2003. http://www.vjel.org/journal/VJEL10013.html

This Journal focuses on TMDL’s and the actual enforcement process of making sure the thresholds are met.   Also focuses on how even though there have been many limits in TMDL’s it has not resulted in improvement in water quality because of the state’s lake of enforcement.

3. Morrissey, Leslie.   “Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center Annual Technical Report.”   United States Geological Survey.   2000. http://water.usgs.gov/wrri/AnnualReports/2000/VTfy2000_annual_report.pdf

A collection of articles by UVM Professors that report on a number of non-point source issues.   Pays specific attention to the current state of lake Champlain health.

4. Stanley, Paul.   “Best Management Practices Lead to Less Phosphorus in Lake Memphremagog.”   Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/nps/Section319II/VT.html

This article deals with funding and policy issues regarding the implementation of best management practices.   The researchers looked at 26 different farms in the Memphremagog basin in northern Vermont to see how BMP’s were being implemented.

5. Brown, E. A.; Watzin, M. C.; Lester, D. C.; McIntosh, A. W.; Williams, A. R.; Lacey, R.; Newbrough, K. L.. “Assessing sediment quality in heterogeneous environments: a case study of a small urban harbor in Lake Champlain.” Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry, Oct1997, Vol. 16 Issue 10, p2125, 0p; ( AN 8284047)

This article is a case study of assessments done on the sediments flowing into Burlington Harbor on Lake Champlain.  Researchers ran three tests on the sediment collected at 19 different sites to determine the physical and chemical characteristics and determine causes of toxicity.

6. McDowell, R.W.; Sharpley, A.N.; Chalmers, A.T.. “Land use and flow regime effects on phosphorus chemical dynamics in the fluvial sediment of the Winooski River, Vermont.” Ecological Engineering, Mar2002, Vol. 18 Issue 4, p477, 11p; ( AN 7794084)

This article looks at the causes behind increased phosphorus levels within Lake Champlain.  It looks at the transport, storage and cycling of phosphorus within the lake’s catchments and how the Winooski River plays into those systems.

7. Meals, Donald, W., Levine, Suzanne, M, Wang, Dean. “Retention of Spike Additions of Soluble Phosphorus in a Northern Eutophic Stream.” Journal of the North American Benthological Society., Vol. 18, No. 2 (Jun., 1999), pp. 185-198. Published by: The North American Benthological Societyhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1468460

This article is article is on research conducted on a 3 rd order stream leading into Lake Champlain, VT.  Scientists from the University of Vermont added spikes of phosphorus to the stream and tested the monitored the flow rate of the phosphorus into the lake with indicators.  They looked at how sedimentation and other factors within the stream filtered the phosphorus.

8. Schindler, D.W.. “Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus and the Eutrophication of Freshwater Lakes.” Journal of Phycology, Dec71, Vol. 7 Issue 4, p321-329, 9p; DOI: 10.1111/1529-8817.ep11600951; ( AN 11600951) Database: Academic Search Premier.

This article looks at how ratios between carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus affect the eutrophication of freshwater lakes.  It also looks at how the levels of these nutrients affect on phytoplankton populations within the lake.

9. The Ecological Society of America, “CES – Ecosystem Services Fact Sheets: Water Purification.” Web. 01 Mar. 2010. <http://www.esa.org/ecoservices/comm/body.comm.fact.wate.html&gt;.

This article talks about ways wetlands clean pollutants. It also give some suggestions on how to maintain these functions. We can use this to support our idea that the Lake Champlain water basin should be maintained.

10. Nichols, Dale S. (1983). “Capacity of Natural Wetlands to Remove Nutrients from Wastewater.” Water Pollution Control Federation JSTOR, 5.5 : 495-505. Web. 1 Mar. 2010. <http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.uvm.edu/stable/pdfplus/25041910.pdf&gt;.

This article refers to nutrients cycles and waste absorption capacity of wetlands. Factors of what determine waste absorption capacity are also discussed. This article can be used to show that wetlands help keep our waters clean.

11. Von Wedel, Randall, Rufus Chaney, and Doug Kepler. 2004. Nature’s Operating Instruction. San Francisco: Sierra Book Club, 42-57.

One chapter discusses a wetland cleaning up an area that has been polluted by a coal mine. It talks about some of the changes the wetland made to the water quality. We could use this example as support that wetlands improve water quality.

12. Stuart Butchart, Ellen Dieme-Amiting, Habiba Gitay, Steve Raaymakers, Douglas Taylor, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN WELL-BEING: WETLANDS AND WATER  Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.

The MEA talks about the services of wetlands. In particular, wetlands serving as a place for fish to live. We can use this assessment to go into detail about the services wetlands provide showing the importance of wetlands.

13. Omernik, J.M. 1977. Nonpoint Source Stream Nutrient Level Relationship: A Nationwide Study. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA-600/3-77-105.

This source looks at trends of nutrient levels within watersheds across the United States. Specifically related to the Champlain basin, it examines the levels of nutrient concentration in basins which may have agricultural runoff and the patterns associated with the different practices within the respective basin.

14. Meals, D.W. 1990. LaPlatte River Watershed Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis Program Comprehensive Final Report. Program Report No. 12, Vermont Water Resources Research Center, University of Vermont, Burlington.

This source is the result of 10 years of monitoring of the Champlain water basin, regarding sediment, nutrient and bacteria concentrations. The report tries to make connections between land use practices and the different annual measurements.

15. Meals., D.W. and L.F. Budd. 1998. Lake Champlain Basin Nonpoint Source Phosphorus Assessment. JAWA 34(2):251-265.

This source looks specifically at the sources of phosporus runoff within the watershed. The report examines both point and non-point sources as well as the concentrations which result from atmospheric deposition. The report labels non-point sources as the greatest contributor to increased phosphorus levels within the lake.

16. Lake Champlain Basin Watersheds. Publication no. 319. Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering. Web. <http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/wqg/319monitoring/07rept319/pdf_files/vt_07.pdf

This report examines levels of biological and chemical variables within the Champlain watershed. The analysis seeks to understand the relationship between land management practices and the levels of these variables within the system

17. Johnson, S.R. (2006, November 11). Nonpoint Source and Storm Water. Retrieved fromhttp://www.epa.gov/nps/2005_nps_outreach_proceedings.pdf

This EPA pdf discusses and shows examples of some community’s ways of establishing a prevention plan to decrease water runoff. One example is the city of Orem, Utah formation of a management campaign, ” If You Wouldn’t Drink It, Don’t Dump It.”

18. Schumann, Kerry. (2007, June 11). Clean Water Testimony. Retrieved from http://www.wisconsinenvironment.org/legislature/testimony/clean-water2/clean-water/dnrs-proposed-nonpoint-source-pollution-rules

This article is on Wisconsin environment website and discusses so ideas to reduce water runoff in Wisconsin streams and lakes.   The3 article says that runoff contaminates over 40% of the streams, and a way of fixing the problem is to implement 25 to 30 foot buzzer zones along all water ways.

19. “Water Quality.” Department of Ecology State of Washington. 2010. Access Washington, Web. 3 Mar 2010. <http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/nonpoint/index.html&gt;.

This site discusses the management plans and regulations that have been adapted in Washington regarding water runoff. The site also looks at what these nonpoint sources are as well.

Provisioning Services (P1)

1. Bureau of Watershed Assessment and Management, Division of Water NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/water_pdf/pwlchmp09.pdf

This report provides detailed description of the overall Lake Champlain water basin; its tributaries, and drainage area. Importantly, it also describes other ecologically significant water bodies both outside of and within the Lake Champlain basin.

2. Champlain Water District. Information from the 2009-2010 Budget. Retrieved from http://www.cwd-h2o.org/budget.html.

The CWD page provides graphical information regarding consumer costs to drinking water. While the costs do not directly reflect costs of treating water, they provide a basis for how much money is spent on drinking water by households in Chittenden County. Briefly, wholesale water sales show an increase in the cost of water over the paste decade. The website provides links to other organizations dealing with water issues in New England.

3. Crawford, M. (2004, August 18). Algae Blooms Explode. The Burlington Free Press . retrieved at: http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.uvm.edu/pqdweb?index=17&did=1797170891&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1270834142&clientId=26648

This is an article from the Burlington Free Press on Algae blooms in lake Champlain. The article touches base on related health, recreational, aesthetic, and other issues that surface because of the algae bloom.

4. Dearmont, D., McCarl, B.A., & Tolman, D.A. (1997). Costs of water treatment due to diminished water quality: A case study in Texas. Retrieved from http://agecon2.tamu.edu/people/faculty/mccarl-bruce/papers/535.pdf.

Dearmont, et al. estimate the costs per million gallons for treating somewhat contaminated surface water. They assess the chemicals needed to treat for suspended solids and other contaminants, and how a reduction in turbidity can lower total yearly costs of treatment at a plant. Their estimate, based on 12 different treatment plants in Texas, is $74.15 million gallons. They found that sites with potential or existing surface water contamination experienced higher costs.

5. Dodds, W.K, Bouska, W.W., Eitzmann, J.L, Pilger, T.J, Pitts, K.L., Riley, A.J.,…Thornbrugh, D.J (2009). Eutrophication of U.S. freshwaters: Analysis of potential economic damages. Environmental Science and Technology, 43 (1), 12-19.

This article begins by explaining a study that was done on 12-14 ecoregions across the United States which found that 90% of rivers exceed the recommended nitrogen and phosphorus levels. The article attempted to calculate the annual loss from US freshwater regions as a result of Eutrophication and calculated it at $2.2 billion.

6. Graham, J.L. (2007). Harmful algal blooms. USGS Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2006/3147/pdf/FS2006_3147.pdf.

This USGS fact sheet provides basic information regarding the causes of algal blooms. It outlines the human health, ecologic and economic consequences of algal blooms in the United States, and specifically refers to HBAs as a cause of drinking water contamination. It includes a cost estimate regarding HBAs from the United States Congress of over $1 billion in the past decade.

7. Lake Champlain Basin Agricultural Watersheds National monitoring program. http://www.anr.state.vt.us/dec//waterq/planning/docs/pl_319report.pdf

The Agricultural Watersheds National monitoring program summarizes the more accessible solutions for protecting streams and rivers that feed Lake Champlain. The program discusses effective uses of low cost solutions, as well as the operating costs associated with them. Included in the report is the collected data for the improvement of water quality through the use of the implements on tributaries and basin-draining bodies of water.

8. Lake Champlain Basin Program. Drinking water. Retrieved from http://www.lcbp.org/drinkwater.htm.

This section of the LCBP website provides important background information regarding the lake and the drinking water services it provides. There is also basic information about who the largest water suppliers are and some basic problems affecting drinking water in Lake Champlain. Finally, the page provides links to other organizations that deal specifically with Lake Champlain drinking water or drinking water standards.

9. Lake Champlain Committee. (2010). Toxics in Lake Champlain and its Watershed. Retrieved April 2010, from Lake Champlain Committee: http://www.lakechamplaincommittee.org/lcc-at-work/toxics-in-lake/

Here is a great article about other contaminants of the lake such as BCP, mercury, and other pharmaceuticals. BCP and other plastic derivatives would be another important contaminant to cover because so little is known about the effects, which makes the risk high because it is an unknown.

10. Lake Champlain Land Trust. (2004). Phosphorus and Lake Champlain . Retrieved 2010, from Lake Champlain Land Trust: http://www.lclt.org/Phosphorus.htm.

This site is a good resource about phosphorus and Lake Champlain. It gives information on point and non point source pollution, parts of the lake that are most affected, and ways to reduce phosphorus pollution.

11. “Memorandum of Support.” http://Www.fundforlakegeorge.org. The Fund for Lake George, 26 May 2009. Web. 8 Apr. 2010. http://www.fundforlakegeorge.org/assets/pdf_files/090519-Phosphorus%20Legislation%20Memo.pdf.

This article explains efforts New York is taking to reduce phosphorus levels in Lake George. It explains that some states have phosphorus level bans which caused a 97% compliance level and no increased cost of everyday products. The article again emphasizes the fact the phosphorus levels are most notable around developed areas and that runoff here is problematic. Finally the article explains problems associated with phosphorus.

12. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Wetlands and water synthesis . World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.358.aspx.pdf.

The wetland services section of this report (p. 40-46) highlights the important provisioning services of water, including inland lake systems. It contains information regarding the amount of fresh water stored in the world’s lakes, and the importance of lakes in detoxifying and filtering water supplies. While much of the information is broad, it is important in framing the basic role of lakes in supplying clean water supplies.

13. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Wetlands and water synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.358.aspx.pdf.

The millennium assessment has parts that explains the problems associated with excessive phosphorus and eutrophication problems. It explains that since 1950, phosphorus, nitrogen, sulfur, and other nutrient-associated pollutants have been critical drivers in ecosystem changes. These increased chemical inputs have led to eutrophication which has caused ecosystem services to be reduced as these plants are crowding out the oxygen. Secondly, it explains that lakes with agal blooms created from eutrophication have been proven to be much more costly in water purification that lakes without these algal blooms.

14. Phillips, P., & Robinson, K. (2009). Variety of chemicals found in waters flowing into Lake Champlain. USGS. Retrieved from http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/article.asp?ID=2136.

This article explains the many man-made substances that have been found in Lake Champlain according to a study done by the US Geological Service. The chemicals found include pesticides, fire retardants, fragrances, detergent degradates, and caffeine. They explain that the concentration of these substances were low but the environmental impacts and reactions of these substances are unknown. Scientists analyzed 62 different chemicals and found all 8 of the substances in one of more of each sample. In addition, a group of hydrocarbon fossil fuels were routinely found in urban areas around Lake Champlain.

15. “Phosphorus on Lake Champlain.” http://www.lclt.org. Lake Champlain Land Trust. Web. 08 Apr. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.lclt.org/Phosphorus.htm.

This article explains the Lake Champlain Land Trust’s increased concern with phosphorus levels in Lake Champlain. It explains that non-developed land contributes to 40 percent less phosphorous levels and with Vermont becoming developed the future will only yield higher levels of concentration. This article also explains the exact problems associated with phosphorus, how it gets into the lake, where on Lake Champlain has the potential to be most affected, and what is being done now to reduce phosphorus levels.

16. The value of ecosystem services. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/ES/ESA/pesal/aboutPES3.html

This source offers important information about the value of certain ecosystem services. Specifically, it differentiates between use value and non-use value, and how that relates with total economic value. Additionally, this website organizes a list of ecosystem services and their estimated economic value. This is an excellent reference to review when evaluating and comparing different services and their importance to a specific environment. Furthermore, it is an interesting reference for our group’s focus on provisioning water because it places the economic value of water much higher than most other ecosystem services.

17. Treatment Technologies for Mercury in Soil, Waste, and Water. Retrieved from ???, United States Environmental Protection Agency.

The source explicitly develops popular techniques for the treatment of waste water containing Mercury. Specifically, page 24-25 defines “regulatory considerations” – or those considerations necessary to the concise definition of Mercury pollution it’s self. Much more information can be found in the article, including operating and maintenance costs of waste water treatment.

18. United States EPA. (2009). Drinking Water Contaminants. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from U.S. EPA: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/index.html

This website contains information on contaminants found in drinking water in the US, with links to detailed information on different contaminants such as BCPs, Mercury, BPA, and others. Detailed information on specific contaminants is very informative and in depth.

19. Valuing ecosystem services: toward better decision-making. (2004, November). National Research Council, Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/html/valuing_services/reportbrief.pdf

This source offers an enormous amount of information on the concept of valuing ecosystems. On the first page of the article, real life examples show ecological economic models, citing a situation in 1996 when New York City was forced to either protect its delicate watersheds or spend up to $6 billion on a water filtration system. It is difficult to put a monetary value on the ecosystem services that our livelihoods depend on, but this report gives insight to ways of valuing our surrounding environments.

20. Voora, V, & Venema, H.D. (2008). An ecosystem services assessment of the Lake Winnipeg watershed. International Institue for Sustainable Development, Retrieved from http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2008/ecosystem_assessment_lake_wpg.pdf

This assessment of ecosystem services in the Lake Winnipeg Watershed is an essential resource to review in our own assessment of the Lake Champlain Basin. Natural resources and their services in the Lake Winnipeg region suffer in similar ways to resources in the Lake Champlain area. Phosphorus run-off due to increased agriculture has decreased water quality, creating environmental issues in the area. This report addresses the financial importance of maintaining a sustainable ecosystem, and projects that between $500 million to $3.1 billion of annual revenue from ecosystems that may be attained with new policies.

21. Vörösmarty, C.J., Lévêque, C., Revenga, C., Bos, R., Caudill, C., Chilton, J.,…Reidy, C. (2005). Fresh Water. In Ecosystems and Human Well-Being Current States and Trends: Findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (165-207). Island Press. Retrieved from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.276.aspx.pdf

This chapter of the Ecosystems and Human-Well Being volume of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment deals specifically with global fresh water supplies and human uses and trends. The most relevant sections, 7.1 through 7.2, explain the different provisioning services provided by fresh water, and the distribution of fresh water across landscapes. There is important information about urban water supplies and ground-water runoff, including the amount of people in the world dependent upon urban-based drinking supplies.

22. VT Water Quality Division. (2003). Water Quality Division. Retrieved April 2010, from Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation. Retrieved from http://www.vtwaterquality.org/.

There is a plethora of great information on this site. There is a Lake Champlain Phosphorus Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) fact sheet with information of the cost of the project and its benefits including why it is needed for the lake and how it will be implemented. There are lake summary reports on toxins in the lake, information on other toxins such as mercury, PCBs, DDT, and others.

Provisioning Services (P2)

1. Bodin, M. (2008). Rediscovering Hydropower. Popular Mechanics, 185(10), 100-104. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

With the new efficiencies of run-of-river hydrodams, there would be an increased production of energy by 2%. This energy is small scale and will support local economy by increasing jobs and keeping the money for utilities in the region. It is efficient and stable for off the grid energy.

2. Fisheries Technical Committee, 2009. Strategic Plan for Lake Champlain Fisheries. Lake Champlain Fish and Wildlife Management Cooperative, USFWS, Essex Junction, VT. http://www.fws.gov/lcfwro/reports/FTC/Strategic%20Plan%20for%20Lake%20Champlain%20Fisheries.pdf

While providing a short history of damage caused by dams in Lake Champlain’s history, the article outlines the strong correlation between dams and the decline of lake sturgeon as well as habitat loss. The article also shows the specific effects of dams on many different Lake Champlain species on many different tributaries.

3. Fountain, Kristen. (2007). Study links mercury to local dams, plants. Valley News, White River Junction, Retrieved from http://www.briloon.org/pub/media/ValleyNews1.10.07.pdf

Hydroelectric dams can create pollution and reduce the water quality. Where dams cause water to back up, the water holds less oxygen, reducing the ability of fish to survive. Dams have also been linked to increased mercury in fish near dams because the calmer water allowed mercury-producing bacteria to flourish. Higher levels of mercury have been found on the Connecticut River near dams.

4. Galy-Lacaux, C. (1997). Gaseous emissions and oxygen consumption in hydroelectric dams. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Retrieved from http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1997/97GB01625.shtml

It has been observed that where dams cause a large area of land to flood, the underwater decomposing organic material can cause the release of methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. The biological oxidation of methane results in a strong oxygen consumption in lake and river waters, which can lower fish populations. Also, about 10% of the carbon stored in the submerged soil and vegetation gets released in gaseous form within 2 years.

5. Harpman, D. (1999). Assessing the Short-Run Economic Cost of Environmental Constraints on Hydropower Operations at Glen Canyon Dam. Land Economics, 75(3), 390-401. Retrieved from Environment Complete database.

Aggregate demand varies throughout the year and the capacity varies over time whether yearly and seasonally. Capacity is dependent on water available for release, the design of the facility and the elevation of the reservoir. Two kinds plants: run-of-river (doesn’t store water to flow later when there is an increase in demand, creation of a reservoir/lake). Second type is the peaking plants that have a lake or stored water to use to generate energy later. It makes energy more affordable (1995- $5.89 per MWhr for hydro power vs. $21.11 per MWhr for coal power).

6. In U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (10.9.09). Basic Mercury information. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/mercury/about.htm

This tells us about the harm that mercury in humans and animals. In humans the harm is most likely to effect newborn babies and predators that feed on fish and fish eating animals take up a high intake of mercury.

7. Koch, F. (2002). Hydropower—the politics of water and energy: Introduction and overview. Energy Policy, 30(14), 1207. Retrieved from Environment Complete database.

Advantages for hydro dams: creation of flood control, irrigation, urban water supply, recreational facilities created. Disadvantages: river ecosystems disrupted, disrupt communities near the project. Social aspect: jobs, improved infrastructure, and the creation of recreation on water.

8. Lake champlain tributaries summary. (2010). Lake Champlain International, Retrieved from http://www.mychamplain.net/programs/lake-champlain-tributaries-summary

Two hydro dams on major Lake Champlain tributaries have altered the water flow which significantly limits spawning areas for many species. Also leaves species such as mussels exposed to the elements and predators.

9. Neals, S. (2008). Traveston Dam tests our environmental process. Ecos, (146), 18-21. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.

Shows an example of controversy surrounding a dam in Australia. Provides useful information about effects dam installation can have on wildlife, endangered species, surrounding habitat, and human consequences as well. Also illustrates how a dam design may be good for some species, but bad for others.

10. Nettles, DC, & Gloss, SP. (1987). Migration of landlocked atlantic salmon and effectiveness of a fish bypass structure at a small scale hydroelectric facility. American Fisheries Society, 7(4), Retrieved from http://afsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1577/1548-8659%281987%297%3C562%3AMOLASS%3E2.0.CO%3B2

This article, while outdated, examines how effective fish bypasses are at mitigating the interruption of fish migration caused by hydroelectric dams on small rivers. The Boquet River in New York is similar to that which a hydroelectric plant might be built in the Lake Champlain basin, and there are several species of fish for which interrupted migration would be an issue. 170 Salmon were tagged with telemetry tags and were monitored for their migration time. The study showed that the bypass successfully allowed the fish to continue along the river after a brief delay.

11. O’Neil, Charles. (1997). Economic impact of zebra mussels – results of the 1995 national zebra mussel information clearinghouse study. Great Lakes Research Review, 3(1), Retrieved from http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:BhizOVhKJ-EJ:scholar.google.com/+lake+champlain+dam&hl=en&as_sdt=40000000000000

This articles examines how in bodies of water where aquatic infrastructure has been installed in zebra mussel habitat, the economic impact of the damage they can cause is extensive. Two institutions, a university campus on Lake Michigan and a residential care facility on Lake Champlain, reported total zebra mussel-related expenses of $27,000; $2,000 for monitoring and $25,000 for prevention. Fifty-six locks spent an average of $3,416 each on Rivers and the Great Lakes.

12. Page, Candace, (3.10.2010). EPA will reconsider Lake Champlain Cleanup Plan. Burlington Free Press. Retrieved from http://www.burlingtonfreepress.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2010100310001

I think this article is relevant information. It uncovers the flaws in the cleanup attempt and the EPA’s unjust approval. Vermont politician are calling for tougher anti-pollution steps, and it shows the people’s concern about the quality of their lake.

13. People & Economy Lake Champlain Basin Atlas. (2004). Beaches. Retrieved from http://www.lcbp.org/atlas/HTML/so_beach.htm

This talks about how humans are affected by E. coli. It goes into the dangers and how many beaches are closed due to the pathogen. It mentions that this has been an emerging problem in recent years.

14. CDAE 06: a class power point I have to figure out how to cite correctly.

29 dams in Vermont create 31.8 MW, potential of 62.9 MW
70 dams without power have a potential of 261.4 MW
50 possible sites for dams with a potential of 90.1 MW produced small dam sites helping cover the demand for energy. Mitigating CO2 offset.

15. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Vermont Agency of Agriculture, Food, and Markets. (2.1.2010). Vermont Clean and Clear Action Plan 2009 Annual Report.

This tells us how a Vermont Agency is trying to get the lake and the surrounding ecosystems to meet the goals of the Federal Clean Water Act. This is very helpful because it focuses on the strategies being taken in river restoration, and it goes in-depth or various identified problems that are being worked on.

16. Wentworth, R. (2004). Why Remove peterson dam from the lamoille river?. Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department, Retrieved from http://www.vtfishandwildlife.com/library/Reports_and_Documents/Fish_and_Wildlife/Peterson_dam-Why_Remove_Peterson_Dam_from_the_Lamoille_River.pdf

The article is about the problems caused by the Peterson dam in the Lamoille River, VT. This is a hydropower dam that has a very negative impact on the spawning areas of many fish species in Lake Champlain.

17. Williams, J. (2008). Mitigating the effects of high-head dams on the Columbia River, USA: experience from the trenches. Hydrobiologia, 609(1), 241-251. doi:10.1007/s10750-008-9411-3.

Outlines the efforts undertaken to improve dams in the Columbia River, USA so that they will have a much smaller impact on salmon. The article lists the many new features installed to help salmon, but showed that overall even after all the effort put into it, salmon levels will still always be much lower with dams in place.

Provisioning Services (P3)

1. Arheimer, B., Torstensson, G., & Wittgren, H. (2004). Landscape planning to reduce coastal eutrophication: agricultural practices and constructed wetlands. Landscape and Urban Planning, 67(1-4), 205-215.

In Sweden there is a management scenario to control coastal eutrophication from high nitrogen levels caused in part by agriculture. The scenario has shown that changes in agricultural practices are some of the most cost-effective changes possible and could reduce the nitrogen delivered to the sea by up to 30%.

2. Beach, E. D., & Carlson, G. A. (1993). Hedonic Analysis of Herbicides: Do User Safety and Water Quality Matter? American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 75(3), 612-623.

Farmers when selecting pesticides for agricultural uses do not always disregard the externalities of safety and water quality associated with pesticides. While the the safety features of a pesticide have small elasticities, they are still regarded as statistically significant and may give some clues as to how certain products are chosen.

3. Vitousek, P., Aber, J., Howarth, R., Likens, G., Matson, P., Schindler, D., et al. (1997). Technical Report: Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Sources and Consequences . Ecological Applications, 7(3), 737-75.

Interruptions in the nitrogen cycle greatly affect water quality in terms of loss of biodiversity, eutrophication, and oxygen availability. The increased use of synthetic fertilizers for intensive agricultural practices around the world have contributed to an imbalanced global nitrogen cycle.

4. Swinton, S., Lupi, F., Robertson, G., Hamilton, S. (2007). Ecosystem Services and Agriculture: Cultivating agricultural ecosystems for diverse benefits. Ecological Economics, Volume 62, Issue 2. Pages 245-252.

Distinguishes between agriculture as a provider and recipient of ecosystem services. Discusses different approaches to valuing ecosystem services and the need for incentives in their management.

5. Henle, K., Alard, D., Clitherow, J., Cobb, P., Firbank, L., Kull, T., McCracken, D., Moritz, R., Niemela, J., Rebane, M., Wascher, D., Watt, A., Young, J. (2008). Identifying and managing the conflicts between agriculture and biodiversity conservation in Europe – A review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Volume 124, Issues 1-2. Pages 60-71.

Discusses why biodiversity conservation and agriculture are often in conflict. They argue that the intensification of agriculture, the abandonment of marginally productive but high nature value farmland, and the changing scale of agricultural operations are the three main reasons behind the conflict.

6. A. Cerdà, H. Lavee, A. Romero-Díaz, J. Hooke, L. Montanarella.(2010). Farmers’ perception of environmental degredation and their adoption of improved management practices in Alxa, China [Electronic version]. Wiley Inter Science, 20, 336-346.

In Alxa League, Western Inner Mongolia, China, the environment and natural resources have been extremely degredated. The study interviews farmers and measures strategies for improving environmental management education and strengthening extension services in the area. Relative to lake Champlain the journal talks about how to approach farmers in regards to environmental degradation and their own farming practices.

7. Antle, J.M., Valdivia, R.O.(2006). Modeling the supply of ecosystem services from agriculture: a minimum-data approach [electronic version]. The Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 50, 1-15.

The journal introduces a method called the minimum-data method, which can be used to simulate the supply of ecosystem services offered in different regions. It calculates the opportunity costs of agriculture and can possibly be used to put a price on the negative externalities of agriculture in the Lake Champlain Basin.

8. Hein, Lars (2007). Assessing the costs of land degradation case study for the Puentes catchment, southeast Spain. Land Degradation and Development,18. 631-642DOI: 10.1002/Idr.802

The study focuses on how land degradation in Puentes, Spain affects ecosystem services and agriculture, the most important source of local income. The study uses a replacement cost method to calculate the costs of erosion on agriculture in the region. Erosion is also a large problem in the lake Champlain basin, mainly the Missiquoi Bay region, where agriculture leads to pesticide runoff and environmental degradation.

9. Tscharntke, T., Klein, A., Kruess A., Steffan-Dewenter I., Thies C. (2005). Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity – ecosystem service management [Electronic version]. Ecology Letters, 8, 857-874.

The journal discusses the positive and negative externalities associated with agricultural land use and the effects on ecosystem services. It focuses on the conservation of biodiversity and how agriculture can support high diversity systems and increase ecosystem services. Since agriculture is essential to Vermont’s economy it is important to understand the ways it does in fact benefit and support ecosystem services around the Lake Champlain basin.

10. Lovell, S. T., DeSantis, S., Nathan, C., Breton Olson, M., Méndez, V. E., Kominami, H. C., Erickson, D. L., Morris, K. S., & Morris, W. B. (2010). Integrating Agroecology and Landscape Multifunctionality in Vermont: An Evolving Framework to Evaluate the Design of Agroecosystems. Agricultural Systems, article in press, corrected proof . Retrieved April 8, 2010, from the ScienceDirect database.

This article examines how the landscape design of Vermont’s Intervale Center and Butterworks Farm integrates agricultural and ecological functions. It seeks to establish a framework for making future evaluations of farm design by considering how land might best be put to use to maximize ecosystem services as well as agricultural production.

11. McDowell, R. W., Sharpley, A. N., & Chalmers, A. T. (2002). Land Use and Flow Regime Effects on Phosphorus Chemical Dynamics in the Fluvial Sediment of the Winooski River, Vermont. Ecological Engineering, 18 (4), 477-487.

This study focuses on the transport, storage and cycling of phosphorus on the Winooski River, Lake Champlain’s largest tributary. It observes how land use and flow regime (physical characteristics of a watershed) determine whether a river acts as a source or sink of sediment phosphorus for the lake.

12. Meals, D. W. (1996). Watershed-scale Response to Agricultural Diffuse Pollution Control Programs in Vermont, USA. Water Science and Technology, 33(4-5), 197-204.

This article analyzes the effects of Best Management Practices implemented in the Champlain Basin in 1979. Extensive water quality measurements from 1979 to 1990 are analyzed to show how the BMPS were effective (for example, in reducing bacterial concentrations), how they were not (reducing nutrient levels) and how they might be improved.

13. Smith, J.M., Parsons, R.L., Van Dis, K., & Matiru, G.N. (2008). Love Thy Neighbor-But Does that Include a Six Hundred Eighty-Four Cow Dairy Operation? A Survey of Community Perceptions. Journal of Dairy Science, 91(4), 1673-1685.

This survey studied the opinions of Charlotte, VT residents about the establishment of a large dairy farm in the community. Concerns about the effects of agriculture on water quality factored into nonsupporters’ opinions, as well as concerns about the effect of the farm on property values and animal welfare.

14. Abasolo, W.P. (2005). Ecosystems and people. Manuscript submitted for publication, College of Forestry and Natural Resources , University of the Philippines Los Baños , Laguna, Laguna, Philippines. Retrieved from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents_sga/Philippine%20SGA%20Report.pdf

This report is a study put together to be a sub-global contribution to the United Nations’ Millennium Ecosystem Assessment by researchers affiliated with the University of the Phillipines, Los Baños. Their goal was to asses the health and progression of four ecosystem services provided by the Laguna Lake Basin and the effects of agriculture fishing and recreation thereupon. Levels of minerals, nutrients, and toxins were monitored and judged against standard qualities found in healthy lake ecosystems. In addition to a natural science approach the researchers also analyzed the impact of social phenomenon on the health of the ecosystem, especially the effect of conflict.

15. Odada, E.O. (2009). Drivers of ecosystem change and their impacts on human well-being in lake victoria basin. African Journal of Ecology, 4.

This is a report compiled by researchers in Kenya detailing the effects of land use on the Lake Victoria basin ecosystem. Special attention is given to the marginal effects of different forms of land use with an emphasis on agriculture. The primary focus of the researchers was how ecosystem degradation is forced by various land using activities.

16. Zedler, J.B. (2003). Wetlands at your service: reducing impacts of agriculture at the watershed scale. Ecological Society of America, 1(2).

Ecologists at the University of Wisconsin studied the lake and watershed ecosystems of the Upper Midwest region of the United States, observing ecosystem services and their longevity, especially with respect to agriculture. The studies showed a need for regenerative actions to be taken in order to restore the health of the ecosystems and recover their associated services.

17. Meals, D.W., Cassell E.A., Hughell, David, Wood, Lynnette, Jokela, W.E., Parsons, Robert (2008). Dynamic spatially explicit mass-balance modeling for targeted watershed phosphorus management: II. Model application. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Volume 127, Issues 3-4, Pages 223-233.

This article discusses various agricultural management practices and their effects of phosphorous runoff in St. Alban’s Bay. Five scenarios were simulated in a test watershed dominated by dairy agriculture in order to find the BMP’s to reduce phosphorous runoff on farmlands.

18. Gaddis, E.B., et al., Effectiveness of a participatory modeling effort to identify and advance community water resource goals in St. Albans Vermont. Environ. Model. Softw. (2009), doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2009.06.004.

A participatory modeling approach was applied to the St. Albans Bay watershed basin to identify the most effective phosphorus control options and achieve load reductions. This study led to new solutions to an old water resource problem. Neutral discussions of water pollution issues provided participants with greater understanding of local environmental issues and reduced historic conflict among actors. This study highlights the social and technical aspects in natural resource planning.

19. Dadfar, H., et al., Likelihood of burrow flow in Canadian agricultural lands. J. Hydrol. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.03.016.

Concern over contamination of water resources by agricultural chemicals, nutrients and particles resulted in the study of hydrological preferential flow. Specific to this study is earthworm burrow flow transport as a pathway for sub-surface contaminant transport. The objective of this analysis was to develop a methodology for predicting the likelihood of burrow flow occurrence in agricultural soils across Canada.

20. Gottschall, N., et al., The role of plants in the removal of nutrients at a constructed wetland treating agricultural (dairy) wastewater, Ontario, Canada. Ecological Engineering. (2007), 29: 154-163.

The focus of this study was done in the South Nation River watershed in eastern Ontario an agricultural watershed impacted by excess nutrient loading. A wetland was constructed to treat wastewater from a 150 cow dairy operation in this watershed. Proportions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal by various plants was monitored and it was concluded that nutrient loads entering the watershed was reduced.

Cultural Services (C1)

1. Spiritual Awakening. Meg Whitman 2010: A New Governor. http://www.megwhitman.com/california/story/883/spiritual-awakening.html

This site offers a story of a high profiled engineer working for Ebay who moved away from the city to Lake Champlain and asked God to help him get stronger and get over his anxiety problems. One day the woman received a sign from God, a cross-shaped cloud with sun beaming through it and a rainbow behind it. She grew stronger religiously and personally and thanks Lake Champlain for its ability to connect her with God.

2. Harrison, Paul. 1996. Scientific Pantheism:
Reverence of Nature and Cosmos. Pantheism http://www.pantheism.net/paul/index.htm

This site outlines the religion of pantheism which places humans in nature instead of above it. It quotes, “If nature is the only paradise, then separation from nature is the only hell. When we destroy nature, we create hell on earth for other species and for ourselves.” This site is great for combining nature and religion or spirituality. It leads to the idea that if we destroy Lake Champlain, we are destroying our temple, shrine and home.

3. Winslow, Mike. 2008. Lake Champlain : a natural history. Burlington, Vt: Lake Champlain Committee; Bennington. 1st ed. (Pg.137-138)

Winslow quotes Cervantes, “this which costs little is less valued.” The author fears the same about the lake. He writes that “it is only after pouring resources into cleaning the lake, to counter act the decades of abuse, that we come to appreciate the treasures it has to offer. Only after we associate it with clean water that we appreciate its benefits?”(138) His short section on the value of the aesthetics of the lake documents that its value is invaluable- you cannot measure the price of a child’s smile or a father and son bonding over fishing.

4. Waterfront Cleanup History and Update: Spring 2007 Early History: Public Trust and the Filled Lands of the Waterfront. Community & Economic Development Office: City of Burlington. http://www.cedoburlington.org/waterfront/waterfront_cleanup_update.htm

This site is useful for documenting the change of the Burlington Waterfront from an aesthetic value. It details the industrial and developing changes along the Burlington Waterfront from the 1880’s to the present. It explains how the shoreline was expanded by sand-fill development through the 1950’s and increased the property by thousands of yards. It also outlines the Public Trust Doctrine, which made sure that the new lands would be used to benefit the public and how this plays into protecting the aesthetic and recreational uses of the waterfront.

5. Daniel Lusk (personal communication, April 8, 2010)

Daniel Lusk is a lecturing professor in the English department at the University of Vermont. He has spent the last ten five plus years studying Lake Champlain using grants from the university to explore the lake’s ship wrecks and sunken treasures, revolutionary war history, and ecological/natural phenomena that help to shape our appreciation for the lake. He uses the information he gathers to write poetry about how ships sank and stories that explain why historical events have occurred. Daniel has offered permission to use these poems in our groups presentation to further expand on what the lake means to the public and poets like himself.

6. Lusk, Daniel. The Art of Lake Champlain: Inspiring Landscape. Burlington, VT: Verve Editions (2009)

This hardback edition commemorates 400 years of Lake Champlain and includes paintings and other artistic renditions of the lake by many Vermont artists who have strong connections with the Lake. It also contains three poems by Daniel Lusk.

7. Slootweg, Roel et al. (2009) Biodiversity in Environmental Assessment: Enhancing Ecosystem Services for Human Well-Being Cambridge University Press

This book overviews the lack of attention given to local environments and biodiversity in particular during development. Like the Millennium Ecosytem Assessment it will give a guideline to different types of ecosystem services and how these are diminished or more valuable depending on the local issues. There are more specific sections relating to cultural services as well which should relate to Lake Champlain.

8. Kumar, Pushpam. Muradian, Roldan(2009) Payment For Ecosystem Services. New Delhi; New York: Oxford University Press

Explains the transaction that happens between the provider and anyone who benefits. Relates directly to the field of ecological economics in terms of having a price for ecological functions from the earth. Using this ideology, one can put a price on the cultural services, and estimate the value of actual ricardian land.

9. Vermont Thomas, Peter A. Bourassa, Marie Lynn. (1986) Cultural resource management study: Townshend Lake, Townshend and Jamaica, VT. Burlington: University of Vermont, Dept. of Anthropology.

Example of a study done on a lake in Jamaica and Townshend Vermont. Subjects deal with property protection and protection of valuable cultural landmarks. These sites are all mapped out well and are indicated to be protected and be important to the region. Managing these resources to gain maximum value without inhibiting factors such as logging and development is also mentioned.

10. Levy, Melissa J. (2003) Local and non-local recreationists and water-based recreation in Franklin and Grand Isle counties.

A survey of the types of recreation on Lake Champlain and the economic value they provide for the region. Tourism is also noted as a service provided by the lake. The Assessment focuses on Grand Isle County and Franklin County, so the northern section of the Lake.

11. Langworthy,Garfield. (1974) Lake Champlain : a whimsical perspective of naval battles, sunken treasures and present marine life on Lake Champlain. Shelburne, VT

Gives a history of the lake with a stortybook attitude. Important historical naval battles, shipwrecks and how these things interact with the ecology of the lake

12. Lake Champlain Maritime Museum “Underwater Historic Preserves”
Retrieved from: http://www.lcmm.org/shipwrecks_history/uhp/uhp.htm Thur. April 8, 2010

This site explores the work and data collection of the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum in conjuction with the VT Division for Historic Preservation
and The New York Dept. of Environmental Conservation. It explains where shipwrecks are located and the impacts of diving on the local ecosystem of the lake.

13. C. Max Finlayson, Rebecca D’Cruz (Coordinating Lead Authors), Nickolay Aladin, David Read Barker, Gordana Beltram, Joost Brouwer, Nicholas Davidson, Laurie Duker, Wolfgang Junk, Michael D. Kaplowitz, Henk Ketelaars, Elena Kreuzberg-Mukhina, Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino, Christian Le´veˆque, Alvin Lopez, Randy G. Milton, Parastu Mirabzadeh, Dave Pritchard, Carmen Revenga, Maria Rivera, Abid Shah Hussainy, Marcel Silvius, Melanie Steinkamp (Lead Authors, Vyascheslav Aparin, Elena Bykova, Jose Luis Garcı´a Caldero´n, Nikolay Gorelkin, Ward Hagemeijer, Alex Kreuzberg, Eduardo Mestre Rodrı´guez Contributing Authors). (2005). Current States & Trends Report: Inland water systems. Ecosystems and Human Well-being, Volume 1. Retrieved from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.289

The Current States & Trends Report in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment outlines how inland bodies of water can have cultural and religious significance depending on the human culture surrounding the water. It gives an example in Tibet, where religious values have deemed some of the lakes in the region as sacred, as well as the crane, which needs the lakes to survive. It also states that because of the relativity and localized nature of religion and culture, it is very difficult to determine the religious value of a single body of water, and that at this point there is not much research on this service.

14. Carlos Corvalan, Simon Hales, Anthony McMichael, Colin Butler, Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum, Ulisses Confalonieri, Kerstin Leitner, Nancy Lewis, Jonathan Patz, Karen Polson, Joel Scheraga, Alistair Woodward, Maged Younes and many MA authors. Ecosystems and human well-being: health synthesis. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.357

This section states the hypothesis that there is a correlation between human well-being and the amount of contact people have with healthy, diverse ecosystems. It suggests that simply seeing nature, in a limited number of studies done, has improved people’s mental and physical health and reduced depression, drug dependency, etc. It also points out that most societies highly value the spiritual services of beautiful places, even though there is no monetary correlation for this service.

15. D.K. Bhattacharya, Eduardo S. Brondizio, Marja Spierenburg, Abhik Ghosh, Myrle Traverse Contributing Authors: Fabio de Castro, Carla Morsello, Andrea D. Siqueira, Xu Jianchu, Hebe Vessuri (2005). Cultural Services, Ecosystems and Human Well-being, Volume 3. Retrieved from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.319.aspx.

This section talks about how waterscapes can have different cultural connotations, and how one ecosystem, such as Lake Champlain, can adopt different identities for different people. It states that the dominant culture in a place can often change the identity of a place or add dimensions to that place. The way nature and religion are related can be influenced not only by moral or symbolic meanings, but also by the culture that takes over the area. For instance, in Africa, colonists believed that Africans did not value their landscape because they did not see it as a separate entity but as a part of who they are. However, Africans have a rich tradition of incorporating the land into their moral beliefs, and it is often reflected in their culture through poetry, song, etc. The article also mentions the issues that arise when trying to incorporate many different moral, ethical, or traditional beliefs and perspectives into a policy plan. There is an idea that specific “sacred areas” of different groups could be linked to conservation plans.

16. “Shipwrecks of Lake Champlain.” Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. 2001. http://www.lcmm.org/shipwrecks_history/shipwrecks/shipwrecks.htm

A list of all the shipwrecks that have occurred in the last few hundred years. I have been looking at some specifically, but they are not enough to cite or to write about. However, collectively these individual shipwrecks compile a good list that will be useful in looking at how the people who had the shipwrecks felt a spiritual connection to the lake. Questions such as, did God mean for me to abandon my ship here?

17. “South Hero, Vermont.” America’s Historic Lakes. 25 April 2009. http://www.historiclakes.org/explore/islands.html

“…the view over sparkling Champlain water to the carved grandeur of the Adirondacks is an awe-inspiring one. Wall on wall the mountain barriers are massed high against the western skyline, shutting in the gleaming stretch of the inland sea that Champlain discovered for the Old World, but which long before that time knew that glide of birch canoes and the thrust of Indian paddles….” so reads a passage from a 1937 guidebook describing the view west from South Hero”

18. “Fort Montgomery” America’s Historic Lakes. 1997. http://www.historiclakes.org/explore/Montgomery.html

Entire history and background information on Fort Montgomery and how the strategic location was used. Also describes the lengthy fortification process, and how the first attempts failed.

19. “Why do I live in Vermont.” Vermont Life Magazine. 2008. http://www.vtlife.com/current_issue/wi07-writers.htm

14 very interesting responses to why people live here in Vermont. Some exclusively mention Lake Champlain and how they not only feel a spiritual connection to the lake, but could not image Burlington or Vermont with out it. All are terrific responses that help us get a subjective view on how everyone has their own spiritual connection to the lake.

20. Hoagland, Everett. “Why I love Lake Champlain” Vermont Life Magazine. http://www.vtlife.com/current_issue/wi07-writers.htm

To some poets, a lake is exactly that, a body of water, a place for bird-watching or contemplation of nature’s mysteries. To Everett Hoagland, a lake is something more. He stands at the edge of Lake Champlain, and wonders, “who walked in, fell in, jumped in, went/ under to lake bed long ago.” He reports: “Something unseen splashed.” His poetic imagination takes him below the surface of the water, beyond whatever we see or want to see, to envision suffering humanity.

21. Bruchac, Joseph. (1985). The wind eagle and other Abenaki stories . Greenfield Center, NY. Bowman Books.

I also own a copy of this book. It is a collection of Abenaki stories that contains the story of the creation of Lake Champlain in depth. Perhaps one of the only ways to understand how much the Abenaki valued the Lake is to look at the stories.

22. Calloway, Colin Gordon. (1990). The Western Abenakis of Vermont, 1600-1800: war, migration, and the survival of an Indian people. Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press.

This book offers another perspective on Western Abenaki history other than the research of Fred Wiseman. It focuses on the scant records of the Western Abenaki in comparison to their Eastern Abenaki counterparts in Maine. It has good information on conflicts that occurred (King Phillip’s War, Grey Lock’s War) and the migration of the Western Abenaki throughout the Vermont and New England region.

23. Vermont Department of Historical Preservation. (2009). Lake Champlain Voyages of Discovery: Bringing History Home. Montpelier, VT.

A wide format book that has a basic introduction to the history of Lake Champlain. It focuses on the history from several perspectives, including those of the French settlers, Native Americans (Abenaki and related tribes) and modern day people. There is some history of the Lake from a native american perspective, including a tale of how the lake got its’ name from the native american perspective.

24. Wiseman, Frederick Matthew. (2009). At lake between : the Great Council Fire and the European discovery of Lake Champlain. Vergennes, VT. Lake Champlain Maritime Museum.

This book talks about the expedition of Samuel de Champlain to what is now known as Lake Champlain. It provides an alternate view on Champlain from a native point of view. Professor Wiseman uses his knowledge of native customs and history to pepper this book with the native perspective. It should be known that Wiseman is a historian and the information he provides needs to be critiqued with an alternate source as it may differ from actual native information at the time.

Cultural Services (C2)

1. Bagley, M. D., Kroll, C. A.. and Clark, K. (1973). Aesthetics in environmental planning: Prepared for Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Research reporting series). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Highlights the relation between aesthetics and environmental planning as an interaction between man and environment. It describes the historical development of the western view of aesthetics, reviews methods for measuring or quantifying aesthetics and provides what was at the time, state of the art research on basic theory for understanding unquantifiable factors.

2. Bayne, David R. “Alabama Issues Magazine” (1998) Alabama’s Surface Waters: A Treasure Taken for Granted. Retrieved on April 8, 2010 from: http://www.aces.edu/dept/fisheries/natural-resources/documents/alasurfacewater.pdf.

This article, written by Professor David R. Bayne of Auburn University, discusses the cultural value of bodies of water, specifically Weiss Lake in Alabama. The paper outlines how humans have begun to depreciate our lakes, streams, ponds, and tributaries, as we continue to exploit them for economic resources. Bayne brings to light the many uses of Lakes, as well as their direct connection with public health and a citizen’s ability to preserve the rich natural heritage of Weiss Lake, for future generations to enjoy.

3. Carrigan, J. R., Egan, K. J., & Downing, J. A. (2007). Aesthetic Values of Lakes and Rivers. Kenyon College, Department of Economics: Working Papers, 0701, 1-34.

The authors, researchers in the economics departments at Kenyon College, the University of Toledo, and Iowa State University, use two different techniques that help gauge willingness to pay (WTP) for improved water quality in order to approximate the aesthetic values of lakes and rivers. The first technique they used is the travel cost method which interprets visitors’ WTP for water quality by approximating the difference in consumer surplus (CS) from access to the lake both before and after suggested improvements in water quality and the second technique used is the contingent valuation method which required asking direct questions about respondents’ WTP for improvement in water quality. Visitors held large water-quality improvements above small ones and the WTP of locals was significant as expected. They found that travel cost benefits were less disputable as they are based on

4. Chenoweth, Richard E. and Gobster, Paul H. “Landscape Journal” (1990) The Nature and Ecology of Aesthetic Experiences in the Landscape. Retrieved on April 8, 2010 from http://nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/1990/nc_1990_chenoweth_001.pdf.

This is an interesting article surrounding the assumption that aesthetically pleasing environments provide valued experiences which can improve people’s quality of life. As aesthetics has been the focus of philosophers and psychologists, and these authors bring up the importance of aesthetics from an environmentalist’s perspective.

5. Dean, D., & Lizarraga-Blackard, A. (2007). Modeling the magnitude and spatial distribution of aesthetic impacts. Environment & Planning B: Planning & Design, 34(1), 121-138. doi:10.1068/b30101.

This paper looks at the negative aesthetic impacts of forestry operations. Since parts of the lake are forested and be threatened by forestry this is very pertinent to our work.

6. Department of Economics, University of Minnesota-Duluth. (September 27th, 2005). Measuring the Economic Value of Water Quality: The Case of Lakeshore Land. The Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 26, No. 2. 10.1007/BF02116368

This article tells us about how water quality of lakes affects the lakeshore property. They specifically mention using secchi disc readings (which gauges water clarity). This aesthetic value plays big role on the valuation of waterfront property.

7. Freeman, A. M. (1995) The Benefits of Water Quality Improvements for Marine Recreation: A review of the Empirical Evidence. Marine Resource Economics Vol. 10. https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/28 262/1 /10040385.pdf.

Freeman talks about how water clarity and quality brings up dollars spent per capita on marine tourists and marine recreationists. This will help us put up the fight for non-market valuation of water.

8. Gobster, P. H. (1996). Forest aesthetics, biodiversity, and the perceived appropriateness of ecosystem management practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

This resource looks at how aesthetic values play into the principles of ecosystem management. It also ties aesthetics in with land ethic, something that is extremely important when we consider the conservation of ecosystem services.

9. Gobster, P.H. (1999). An ecological aesthetic for forest landscape management. Landscape Journal.

This argues that we should adapt an ecological aesthetic that merges ecological sustainability with aesthetics, and not separate the two. This is important as it ties into how we define the scope of what aesthetic value entails when talking about the lake and its surrounding ecosystems.

10. Howland, W. (1998). Lake Champlain: Lake Basin Management Initiative Experience and Lessons Learned Brief. Lake Champlain Basin Program.

A piece from the Champlain Basin Program that addresses past successes and failure s in management of Lake Champlain. Outlines a variety of strategies for maintaining a balance between well functioning ecosystem services and social pressures.

11. Keuntzel, W.F., Tritton, L.M., Wang, D. (1997).Thinking about water quality management: Social values, wetland ecology, and landowner practices. Integrating social science and ecosystem management: A national challenge, Proceedings. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rept. SRS-17. pp. 156-162.

Walter Keuntzel’s piece combines a number of issues that need to be addressed when considering ecosystem management. It references a number of different fields including social, scientific and policy related ideas, and will serve as a great source for our project.

12. Kuentzel, W.F., Dennis, D.F. (1998). Landowner values, water quality, and recreation in the Lake Champlain Basin. Proceedings of the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; 1997 April 6 – 9; Bolton Landing, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-241. pp. 155-162.

This source deals primarily with landowners, and the impacts they have on ecosystem services. It also helps to outline the many ecosystem services which can be benefited from in the Champlain Basin, including aesthetic values.

13. Lansford, H. N., Jones, L. L. (July 1st, 1995). Marginal Price of Lake Recreation and Aesthetics. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Vol. 27, No. 01. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/handle/15347.

This article, although written on a study done in Texas, covers many key factors that go into the pricing of housing on and around lakefronts. It displays a list of nearly 30 factors that show how lakefront aesthetics as well as lake proximity increase the value of land.

14. Lansford Jr., Notie H. and Lonnie L. Jones. “Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics” (1995) Recreational and Aesthetic Value of Water Using Hedonic Price Analysis. Retrieved April 3, 2010 from: http://agecon2.tamu.edu/people/faculty/jones- lonnie/AGEC%20603/Lansford%20and%20Jones%201995%20Recreational%20land%2 0Aesthetic%20Value%20of%20Water%20using%20Hedonic%20Price%20Analysis.pdf.

In this document, the authors discuss a system called Hedonic Price Analysis, to put values on recreation and aesthetics of a lake. Many aspects, such as shoreline building, pollution, population density in proximity to water, and other factors are all taken into consideration when calculating these figures.

15. Lindemann-Matthies, P., Junge, X., & Matthies, D. (2010). The influence of plant diversity on people’s perception and aesthetic appreciation of grassland vegetation. Biological Conservation, 143(1), 195-202. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.10.003.

This resource looks at the impact of biodiversity on aesthetic value and how higher biodiversity makes people appreciate aesthetics more. This is important as it shows a connection between the aesthetic ecosystem service and the ecosystem service of biodiversity, which may be a useful thing to note when trying to get people to value aesthetics.

16. Michael, H. J., Boyle, K. J., Bouchard, R. (February, 1996). Water Quality Affects Property Prices: A Case Study of Selected Maine Lakes. Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station. Miscellaneous Report 398.

Michael, Boyle and Bouchard’s experiment on water quality and lake property will help us determine what factors of water clarity increase and reduce waterfront housing. There is also a simple tried and tested calculation that can help determine property value (by means of house size and type, and water quality and waterfront footage)

17. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems an3d Human Well-Being: Wetlands and Water. Washington, DC: Retrieved March 31, 2010 from http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/Reports.aspx.

This section of the MEA focuses on human health and well being associated with wetland areas. One area in particular correlates the effects of degrading wetland areas with the downturn of economies due to the overall reduction of aesthetic appeal to the human population. Likewise, this section also intertwines how direct causes of erosion and pollution can have the same detrimental effect.

18. National Technical Advisory Committee to the Secretary of the Interior. (1968). Water Quality Criteria. (800R68900). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

The subcommittee recommends aesthetic criteria which involves uses and activities on the surface of the water and therefore the management of water for aesthetic reasons has to be shaped around the uses of the water’s surface, the shoreline, and the land. This report contains several recommendations: surface waters should add to the stock of life forms that are of aesthetic value, and surface waters should not contain discharges or wastes. The subcommittee found that applying numerical criteria to aesthetic uses would not be useful.

19. Natural Resources Board. (2003). Criterion 8 (Historical Sites): Requirements for Issuance of Permit. Montpelier, VT: Retrieved April 3, 2010 from http://www.nrb.state.vt.us/lup/publications/manual/8historicsitesfinal.pdf.

“Under Criterion 8, before issuing a permit, the Commission must find the proposed project will not have an undue adverse effect on the scenic or natural beauty of the area, aesthetics, historic sites or rare or irreplaceable natural areas. 10 V.S.A. §6086(a)(8).” This is a significant breakthrough in regards to preservation of aesthetics. Specifically, the state has gone so far as to implement part of a bill to protect over all quality and make sure minimal damage occur.

20. South Windsor County Regional Planning Commission. (2010). Cultural & Aesthetic Resources. Ascutney, VT: Retrieved from http://www.swcrpc.org/content/regionalplan/ pdf/06FINALDRAFTCultRes.pdf.

“The preservation of these cultural and natural resources has become increasingly difficult due to economic and development pressures. Efforts to alleviate these pressures, or to mitigate any negative effects of development are necessary to protect, preserve, and improve the significant aesthetic resources within the Region.”  “Aesthetic resources are protected by Criterion 8 of Vermont’s Act 250, which does not relegate scenic beauty to pristine areas alone, but to settled areas and farmlands as well.”

21. Viscusi, W. K., Huber, J. (2000). Valuing Inland Water Quality Improvements. Information Collection Request, EPA ICR No. 1914.01.

In this project the authors, researchers at Harvard and Duke Universities, have attempted to develop economic values for improvements in water quality of lakes, rivers, and streams. The project assesses how the current EPA approach of determining different aspects of water quality, which is published in the EPA Water Quality Inventory, affect the valuations of various individuals through random recruitment of subjects throughout the United States to participate in a survey which established preliminary benefit values for water quality improvements. The results are primarily for community, state, and local agencies that deal with water quality but are also relevant to economists studying benefit values for changes in water quality and policies.

22. Wilson, M., & Carpenter, S. (1999). Economic Valuation of Freshwater Ecosystem Services in the United States:1971- 1997. Ecological Applications, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. 772-783.

Though this source is fairly broad, it outlines many of the aesthetic values found in freshwater ecosystems across the country. Since the article comes from Ecological Applications, there are many references to the benefits of a variety of ecosystem services.

23. Zika, P. F., Stern, R. J., Ahles, H. E. (July, 1983) Contributions to the Flora of the Lake Champlain Valley, NY and VT. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 110, No. 01. http://www.jstor.org/pss/2996192.

This article mentions a lot about flora in the Lake Champlain basin area, which as we know flowers and nature a big draw for tourism and art. In the article they also mention both new and rare species that should be preserved

Cultural Services (C3)

1. South Lake Champlain Education Center: Poultney Educational Trail. Retrieved April 7th, 2010, from The Poultney Mettowee Natural Resources Conservation District Website http://www.pmnrcd.org/projects/educational_programs/poultney_education_trail.php

This source directly addresses the educational value of Lake Champlain. It describes and shows photos of the outdoor educational initiatives that the lake and nearby trail provide as well as going into detail describing how Poultney Elementary, Poultney High and Green Mountain College all use and benefit educationally from the trail and education center.

2. Lake Champlain Maritime Museum: Educational Programs. Retrieved April 7th, 2010, from the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum website. http://www.lcmm.org/education/education.htm

This source describes in detail the many educational programs and educational opportunities put on by the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum. This museum uses Lake Champlain as a resource to teach people how to boat and to teach about the local ecology and history of the lake region.

3. Lake Champlain Basin Program: Lake Champlain Basin Atlas. Retrieved April 7th, 2010 from http://www.lcbp.org/Atlas/HTML/maps.htm

This is a public, easy to navigate website with a purpose to educate about Lake Champlain. Website provides maps of the lake and basin, links to articles about issues related to the lake and basin, and offers information on the lake from issues ranging from the beaches to the nearby highways.

4. Demarest, Amy B.(1999). This Lake Alive!. Shelburne, VT: Shelburne Farms Books.

As described on the cover of the book itself, this is an “an interdisciplinary handbook for teaching and learning about the Lake Champlain basin”. This book covers a wide range of topics of education for the region from prehistoric geology to present environmental concerns.

5. State University of New York at Plattsburgh. Lake Champlain Research Institute at SUNY Plattsburgh. Retrieved April 7th, 2010 from the SUNY Plattsburgh website http://www.plattsburgh.edu/academics/lcri/

The Lake Champlain Research Institute at SUNY Plattsburgh allows students of science and the environment the opportunity to do Lake Champlain based research and career preparation.

6. Water innovation center. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.waterinnovationhub.org/ research/governance/integratedwater.asp

This website talks about water resource management, payments for ecosystem services and how to integrate them into more policies. The company created a report that summarized their findings and recommendations for the use of payments of ecosystem services for IWRM on Canadian Prairies. It discusses what ecosystem services are, the governance and management surrounding them, wetlands in particular, the technology behind managing ecosystem services, ecohealth and community outreach. It successfully covers different disciplines and looks at ecosystem services in a more holistic way. This will be useful for our project because it gives an example of how this type of work has been applied somewhere and whether or not it was successful. It will be a great resource to study for this project.

7. Polasky, S. , “Valuing Ecosystem Services of Great Lakes,” 2008-07-10, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Congress for Conservation Biology, Convention Center, Chattanooga, TN <Not Available>. 2010-03-12 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p243853_index.html

This article is another that talks about ecosystem services, their benefits and how they are a necessity for our world. It explains how to make decisions from a multi disciplinary viewpoint. It also models ecosystem services using their ecological production functions. It is very difficult to put a price on these services; this is simply one way of thinking about how to value them. This particular article specifically looks at ecosystem services provided by lakes. Recreational fishing, swimming, climate regulation, water provision, tourism, aesthetics and cultural values are all taken into account. The Great Lakes in the US and the great lakes of Eastern Africa are touched upon in this article as well. Each lake is governed differently, which will give us more examples of how this particular situation has been dealt with in the past with other lakes.

8. Vermont clean and clear action plan- what’s new? (2004). Retrieved from http://www.anr.state.vt.us/cleanandclear/new.cfm

This website will be helpful from day to day as they post what’s new with Vermont’s clean and clear action plan. There are audio files from hearings and conferences after they are held. These lectures and proposals are helpful for our project because they educate the readers and listeners about current topics, which we can pass on to others. There are many different styles of teaching, and lectures unfortunately are one of them. We can study this website to learn what works best for learning purposes.

9. Houtven, G.V., Sinha, P, Phelan, J, Cooter, B, & Barber, M. (2009). Analysis of ecosystem benefits for reductions of nox and sox. RTI International, Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/ttn/ecas/regdata/Benefits/methodology_report_10-30-09.pdf

This report is an analysis of ecosystem benefits for the reduction of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. It begins with an overview of the effects of these oxides on provisioning, cultural and regulating services. This will be helpful for us because those services are exactly what we are dealing with as well. Although the oxides might be different, the effects could potentially be similar. The report also discusses different acidification and enrichment and their effects on these same services. There are models in the report that discuss the effected ecosystem, the symptoms and effects, ecological indicators of such and what would happen if we could regulate these effects. It is also a helpful report because it looks at different lakes and how although treatment could be the same, the end result will almost always be different.

10. D’Cruz, Ramsey. (2004, June 22). The Role of communication, education and public awareness (cepa) in lake basin management. Retrieved from http://www.worldlakes.org/uploads/CEPA_draft_22Jun04.pdf

This paper talks about investment returns for the future. CEPA stands for Communication Education and Public Awareness. They deal with Lake Basin Management. This company tries to place their actions within an economic and social context. This is another example of a multi disciplinary way of looking at our current problems. The paper also talks about identifying and analyzing every problem before making any first steps to address the problem. Lakes have forever been the center of populations. Fish distribution, vegetation growth, and various resources are all necessary and all come from the lake. This report was written in 2004, but it was already realizing the importance of conservation and education surrounding our natural resources. The project they were working on was to contribute insights about how to manage lakes and reservoirs sustainably. Hopefully this will give US insight on how to further educate the community about the importance of Lake Champlain.

11. Department for Environment and Heritage. (2010, April 8). Ecosystem Services – Cultural Services. Retrieved from Government of South Australia website: http://www. environment.sa.gov.au/education/pages/modules/biodiversity/eco_04c.html

Outlines the specific cultural services within ecosystem services including aesthetic, scenic & spiritual values, religious & historic sites and educational resources. Pointing out that some of these services are tangible while others boost wellbeing and noting the importance of that in communities around the watershed.

12. Schuman, P. S., Brown, T. L., Duttweiler, M. W. (1979) The Roles of Research and Extension Education in the Developing Lake Ontario Salmonid Fishery. Fisheries; 4: 6-8. Retrieved from http://afsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1577/1548- 8446%281979%29004%3C0006%3ATRORAE%3E2.0.CO%3B2

Examines the impact of fishing on lakes including the economic and social impacts on the neighboring communities. This article studies the positive impacts of the research extension efforts funded by the New York Sea Grant. These benefits could also apply to Lake Champlain if the same funding was made available.

13. Netherlands, S. (1997) Virtual Realities in Environmental Education: The Project LAKE. Education and Information Technologies, 2(2), 131-142. doi: 10.1023/A:1018648810609

This article outlines the use of virtual realities for environmental education and includes results of an application simulating eutrophication. VR gives allows for the understanding of population dynamics in lakes because the learning environment can be manipulated and controlled to enhance student’s experiences. Useful for students that do not have access to a lake and shows that Lake Champlain can educate far beyond the watershed.

14. Lake Champlain Sea Grant. (2010, April 8). Lake Champlain Sea Grant Education Programs. Retrieved from http://www.uvm.edu/~seagrant/education/default.html)

This website outlines the educational resources funded by the Lake Champlain Sea Grant through the University of Vermont, including the Watershed Alliance Program, Youth Watershed Stewardship Program and the Non-point source Education for Municipal Officials (NEMO) program.

15. Lake Champlain Sea Grant. (2010, April 8). Lake Champlain Sea Grant Extension Programs. Retrieved from http://www.uvm.edu/~seagrant/extension/default.html

This website outlines the extension services funded by the Lake Champlain Sea Grant through the University of Vermont, including aquatic resources like information on invasive species & fisheries along with resources about costal communities & economies like erosion and shoreline stabilization, improving local government capacity, lake education & action projects, smart growth initiatives, regional stormwater education programs and atmospheric decomposition monitoring.

16. Lake Champlain Sea Grant. (2010, April 8). Lake Champlain Sea Grant Research Programs. Retrieved from http://www.uvm.edu/~seagrant/research/default.html

This website outlines the research funded by the Lake Champlain Sea Grant through the University of Vermont, including national Sea Grant initiatives and staff research. This research focuses on learning how to better manage the lake through sustainable use and improvement of the basin’s aquatic resources and the watershed.

17. Lake Champlain Committee. (2010, April 8). Lake Champlain Committee Publications. Retrieved from http://www.lakechamplaincommittee.org/learn/publications/

This website offers multiple educational resources in the form of manuals, guidebook, pamphlets, ect. The selection includes: Lake Champlain Boating Manual, Lake Champlain Paddlers’ Trail Guidebook, LCC Blue Green Algae Pamphlet, The Stormwater Smart Growth Connection, Dishwasher Detergents and Phosphorus, and the Urban Stream Awareness In Lake Champlain Basin Curriculum. These are targeted at people who are not learning about these issues in a traditional classroom study, they can be distributed to the general public.

18. Cruising. (n.d.). Boothbay-Portland-Boston-Gloucester-Cape Cod-Port kent-Harbor Towns- ocean-lake Harbors. Retrieved April 12, 2010, from http://www.harborwatch.com/cruising.htm

This website gives information about towns and recreation and history surrounding lake champlain but focuses on all areas which the lake touches. It is relevant because it not only discusses educational opportunities around the lake but also other important factors which the lake contributes to society.

19. Homepage. (n.d.). ECHO Lake Aquarium and Science Center. Retrieved April 7, 2010, from http:/http://www.echovermont.org

ECHO is the museum which focuses on educating the public about the lake and its habitats. This website is useful because it is a prime example of education on the lake and about the lake. It shows the activities that this facility provides as well as useful information about the lake itself.

20. John Briggs. “Maritime Museum Emerges on Possible Moran Plant Tenant.” The Burlington Free Press. March 9, 2010, http://www.proquest.com/ (accessed march 26, 2010)

This article is important to our research because it discusses what an educational service around the lake is doing directly to protect and preserve the lake itself.

21. Report, “Vermont Museums: Lake focus of 2009 exhibits.” The Burlington Free Press, June 4, 2009, http://porquest.com/ (accessed March 26, 2010)

This is another article from the Burlington Free Press which discusses museum exhibits around the lake which focus on the lake. This also has hold in the economics department because these exhibits are a source of revenue for the surrounding lake towns.

22. 2010 NGWA Ground Water Summit and 2010 Ground Water Protection Council Spring Meeting. Retrieved April 7, 2010, from http://www.ngwa.org/summit2010/index.aspx

This website is relevant because it provides education information about the affects of groundwater and run-off on the lake and also provides information about educational opportunities around the Lake Champlain Basin. It also discusses groundwater policies which are put in place by the NGWA which are helpful in assessing the lake’s current situation.

Bagley, M. D., Kroll, C. A.. and Clark, K. (1973). Aesthetics in environmental planning:   Prepared for Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection             Agency (Research reporting series). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

~Highlights the relation between aesthetics and environmental planning as an interaction between man and environment. It describes the historical development of the western view of aesthetics, reviews methods for measuring or quantifying aesthetics and provides what was at the time, state of the art research on basic theory for understanding unquantifiable factors.

Bayne, David R. (Professor) “Alabama Issues Magazine” (1998) Alabama’s Surface Waters: A     Treasure Taken for Granted. Retrieved on April 8, 2010 from: http://www.aces.edu/dept/fisheries/natural-resources/documents/alasurfacewater.pdf.

~This article, written by Professor David R. Bayne of Auburn University, discusses the cultural value of bodies of water, specifically Weiss Lake in Alabama. The paper outlines how humans have begun to depreciate our lakes, streams, ponds, and tributaries, as we continue to exploit them for economic resources. Bayne brings to light the many uses of Lakes, as well as their direct connection with public health and a citizen’s ability to preserve the rich natural heritage of Weiss Lake, for future generations to enjoy.

Carrigan, J. R., Egan, K. J., & Downing, J. A. (2007). Aesthetic Values of Lakes and Rivers.        Kenyon College, Department of Economics: Working Papers, 0701, 1-34.

~The authors, researchers in the economics departments at Kenyon College, the University of Toledo, and Iowa State University, use two different techniques that help gauge willingness to pay (WTP) for improved water quality in order to approximate the aesthetic values of lakes and rivers. The first technique they used is the travel cost method which interprets visitors’ WTP for water quality by approximating the difference in consumer surplus (CS) from access to the lake both before and after suggested improvements in water quality and the second technique used is the contingent valuation method which required asking direct questions about respondents’ WTP

for improvement in water quality. Visitors held large water-quality improvements above small ones and the WTP of locals was significant as expected. They found that travel cost benefits were less disputable as they are based on

Chenoweth, Richard E. and Gobster, Paul H. “Landscape Journal” (1990) The Nature and            Ecology of Aesthetic Experiences in the Landscape. Retrieved on April 8, 2010 from http://nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/1990/nc_1990_chenoweth_001.pdf.

~This is an interesting article surrounding the assumption that aesthetically pleasing environments provide valued experiences which can improve people’s quality of life. As aesthetics has been the focus of philosophers and psychologists, and these authors bring up the importance of aesthetics from an environmentalist’s perspective.

Dean, D., & Lizarraga-Blackard, A. (2007). Modeling the magnitude and spatial distribution of    aesthetic impacts. Environment & Planning B: Planning & Design, 34(1), 121-138.     doi:10.1068/b30101.

~This paper looks at the negative aesthetic impacts of forestry operations. Since parts of the lake are forested and be threatened by forestry this is very pertinent to our work.

Department of Economics, University of Minnesota-Duluth. (September 27th, 2005). Measuring   the Economic Value of Water Quality: The Case of Lakeshore Land. The Annals of         Regional Science, Vol. 26, No. 2. 10.1007/BF02116368

~This article tells us about how water quality of lakes affects the lakeshore property. They specifically mention using secchi disc readings (which gauges water clarity). This aesthetic value plays big role on the valuation of waterfront property.

Freeman, A. M. (1995) The Benefits of Water Quality Improvements for Marine Recreation: A    review of the Empirical Evidence. Marine Resource Economics Vol. 10. https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/28 262/1 /10040385.pdf.

~Freeman talks about how water clarity and quality brings up dollars spent per capita on marine tourists and marine recreationists. This will help us put up the fight for non-market valuation of water.

Gobster, P. H. (1996). Forest aesthetics, biodiversity, and the perceived appropriateness of           ecosystem management practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture.

~This resource looks at how aesthetic values play into the principles of ecosystem management. It also ties aesthetics in with land ethic, something that is extremely important when we consider the conservation of ecosystem services.

Gobster, P.H. (1999). An ecological aesthetic for forest landscape management.

Landscape Journal.

~This argues that we should adapt an ecological aesthetic that merges ecological sustainability with aesthetics, and not separate the two. This is important as it ties into how we define the scope of what aesthetic value entails when talking about the lake and its surrounding ecosystems.

Howland, W. (1998). Lake Champlain: Lake Basin Management Initiative Experience and            Lessons Learned Brief. Lake Champlain Basin Program.

~A piece from the Champlain Basin Program that addresses past successes and failure s in management of Lake Champlain. Outlines a variety of strategies for maintaining a balance between well functioning ecosystem services and social pressures.

Keuntzel, W.F., Tritton, L.M., Wang, D. (1997).Thinking about water quality management:          Social values, wetland ecology, and landowner practices. Integrating social science and   ecosystem management: A national challenge, Proceedings. USDA Forest Service Gen.              Tech. Rept. SRS-17. pp. 156-162.

~Walter Keuntzel’s piece combines a number of issues that need to be addressed when considering ecosystem management. It references a number of different fields including social, scientific and policy related ideas, and will serve as a great source for our project.

Kuentzel, W.F., Dennis, D.F. (1998). Landowner values, water quality, and recreation in the        Lake Champlain Basin. Proceedings of the 1997 Northeastern Recreation Research   Symposium; 1997 April 6 – 9; Bolton Landing, NY. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-241. pp. 155-162.

~This source deals primarily with landowners, and the impacts they have on ecosystem services. It also helps to outline the many ecosystem services which can be benefited from in the Champlain Basin, including aesthetic values.

Lansford, H. N., Jones, L. L. (July 1st, 1995). Marginal Price of Lake Recreation and Aesthetics. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Vol. 27, No. 01. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/handle/15347.

~This article, although written on a study done in Texas, covers many key factors that go into the pricing of housing on and around lakefronts. It displays a list of nearly 30 factors that show how lakefront aesthetics as well as lake proximity increase the value of land.

Lansford Jr., Notie H. and Lonnie L. Jones. “Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics”     (1995) Recreational and Aesthetic Value of Water Using Hedonic Price Analysis.   Retrieved April 3, 2010 from: http://agecon2.tamu.edu/people/faculty/jones-           lonnie/AGEC%20603/Lansford%20and%20Jones%201995%20Recreational%20land%2     0Aesthetic%20Value%20of%20Water%20using%20Hedonic%20Price%20Analysis.pdf.

~In this document, the authors discuss a system called Hedonic Price Analysis, to put values on recreation and aesthetics of a lake. Many aspects, such as shoreline building, pollution, population density in proximity to water, and other factors are all taken into consideration when calculating these figures.

Lindemann-Matthies, P., Junge, X., & Matthies, D. (2010). The influence of plant diversity on     people’s perception and aesthetic appreciation of grassland vegetation. Biological          Conservation, 143(1), 195-202. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2009.10.003.

~This resource looks at the impact of biodiversity on aesthetic value and how higher biodiversity makes people appreciate aesthetics more. This is important as it shows a connection between the aesthetic ecosystem service and the ecosystem service of biodiversity, which may be a useful thing to note when trying to get people to value aesthetics.

Michael, H. J., Boyle, K. J., Bouchard, R. (February, 1996).  Water Quality Affects Property Prices: A Case Study of Selected Maine Lakes. Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station. Miscellaneous Report 398.

~Michael, Boyle and Bouchard’s experiment on water quality and lake property will help us determine what factors of water clarity increase and reduce waterfront housing. There is also a simple tried and tested calculation that can help determine property value (by means of house size and type, and water quality and waterfront footage)

Millenium Ecosystem Assessment. (2005). Ecosystems an3d Human Well-Being: Wetlands and     Water. Washington, DC: Retrieved March 31, 2010 from    http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/Reports.aspx.

~This section of the MEA focuses on human health and well being associated with wetland areas. One area in particular correlates the effects of degrading wetland areas with the downturn of economies due to the overall reduction of aesthetic appeal to the human population. Likewise, this section also intertwines how direct causes of erosion and pollution can have the same detrimental effect.

National Technical Advisory Committee to the Secretary of the Interior. (1968). Water Quality     Criteria. (800R68900). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

~The subcommittee recommends aesthetic criteria which involves uses and activities on the surface of the water and therefore the management of water for aesthetic reasons has to be shaped around the uses of the water’s surface, the shoreline, and the land. This report contains several recommendations: surface waters should add to the stock of life forms that are of aesthetic value, and surface waters should not contain discharges or wastes. The subcommittee found that applying numerical criteria to aesthetic uses would not be useful.

Natural Resources Board. (2003). Criterion 8 (Historical Sites): Requirements for Issuance of        Permit. Montpelier, VT: Retrieved April 3, 2010 from http://www.nrb.state.vt.us/lup/publications/manual/8historicsitesfinal.pdf.

~“Under Criterion 8, before issuing a permit, the Commission must find the proposed project will not have an undue adverse effect on the scenic or natural beauty of the area, aesthetics, historic sites or rare or irreplaceable natural areas.  10 V.S.A. §6086(a)(8).”

~This is a significant breakthrough in regards to preservation of aesthetics. Specifically, the state has gone so far as to implement part of a bill to protect over all quality and make sure minimal damage occur.

South Windsor County Regional Planning Commission. (2010). Cultural & Aesthetic Resources. Ascutney, VT: Retrieved from http://www.swcrpc.org/content/regionalplan/         pdf/06FINALDRAFTCultRes.pdf.

~“The preservation of these cultural and natural resources has become increasingly difficult due to economic and development pressures.  Efforts to alleviate these pressures, or to mitigate any negative effects of development are necessary to protect, preserve, and improve the significant aesthetic resources within the Region.”

~“Aesthetic resources are protected by Criterion 8 of Vermont’s Act 250, which does

not relegate scenic beauty to pristine areas alone, but to settled areas and farmlands

as well.”

Viscusi, W. K., Huber, J. (2000). Valuing Inland Water Quality Improvements. Information          Collection Request, EPA ICR No. 1914.01.

~In this project the authors, researchers at Harvard and Duke Universities, have attempted to develop economic values for improvements in water quality of lakes, rivers, and streams. The project assesses how the current EPA approach of determining different aspects of water quality, which is published in the EPA Water Quality Inventory, affect the valuations of various individuals through random recruitment of subjects throughout the United States to participate in a survey which established preliminary benefit values for water quality improvements. The results are primarily for community, state, and local agencies that deal with water quality but are also relevant to economists studying benefit values for changes in water quality and policies.

Wilson, M., & Carpenter, S. (1999). Economic Valuation of Freshwater Ecosystem Services in     the United States:1971- 1997. Ecological Applications, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Aug., 1999), pp.            772-783.

~Though this source is fairly broad, it outlines many of the aesthetic values found in freshwater ecosystems across the country. Since the article comes from Ecological Applications, there are many references to the benefits of a variety of ecosystem services.

Zika, P. F., Stern, R. J., Ahles, H. E. (July, 1983) Contributions to the Flora of the Lake Champlain Valley, NY and VT. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. 110, No. 01. http://www.jstor.org/pss/2996192.

~This article mentions a lot about flora in the Lake Champlain basin area, which as we know flowers and nature a big draw for tourism and art. In the article they also mention both new and rare species that should be preserved

Advertisements